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Journal ArticleDOI

Phosphinic peptides, the first potent inhibitors of astacin, behave as extremely slow-binding inhibitors.

15 Apr 1998-Biochemical Journal (Portland Press Ltd)-Vol. 331, Iss: 2, pp 375-379

TL;DR: The phosphinic peptides may provide a rational basis for the design of drugs directed towards other members of the astacin family which, like bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), have become targets of pharmacological research.

AbstractA series of phosphinic pseudo-peptides varying in length and composition have been designed as inhibitors of the crayfish zinc endopeptidase astacin, the prototype of the astacin family and of the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases. The most efficient phosphinic peptide, fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Lys-PhePsi(PO2CH2)Ala-P ro-Leu-Val, binds to astacin with a Ki value of 42 nM, which is about three orders of magnitude below the corresponding values for previously used hydroxamic acid derivatives. However, the rate constants for association (kon = 96.8 M-1.s-1) and dissociation (koff = 4.1 x 10(-6) s-1) are evidence for the extremely slow binding behaviour of this compound. N-terminally or C-terminally truncated phosphinic analogues of this parent molecule are much less potent, indicating a critical role of the peptide size on the potency. In particular, omission of the N-terminal proline residue leads to a 40-fold increase in Ki which is mostly due to a 75-fold higher koff value. These findings are consistent with the previously solved crystal structure of astacin complexed with one of the phosphinic peptides, benzyloxycarbonyl-Pro-Lys-PhePsi(PO2CH2)Ala-Pro-O-methyl, Ki = 14 microM [Grams, Dive, Yiotakis, Yiallouros, Vassiliou, Zwilling, Bode and Stocker (1996) Nature Struct. Biol. 3, 671-675]. This structure also reveals that the phosphinic group binds to the active site as a transition-state analogue. The extremely slow binding behaviour of the phosphinic peptides is discussed in the light of the conformational changes involving a unique 'tyrosine switch' in the structure of astacin upon inhibitor binding. The phosphinic peptides may provide a rational basis for the design of drugs directed towards other members of the astacin family which, like bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1; i.e. the procollagen C-proteinase), have become targets of pharmacological research.

Topics: Astacin (56%), Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A structure-based derivation of the AHNP represents a novel strategy for the design of receptor-specific tumor therapies for p185HER2/neu-expressing human cancers.
Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies specific for the p185HER2/neu growth factor receptor represent a significant advance in receptor-based therapy for p185HER2/neu-expressing human cancers. We have used a structure-based approach to develop a small (1.5 kDa) exocyclic anti-HER2/neu peptide mimic (AHNP) functionally similar to an anti-p185HER2/neu monoclonal antibody, 4D5 (Herceptin). The AHNP mimetic specifically binds to p185HER2/neu with high affinity (KD=300 nM). This results in inhibition of proliferation of p185HER2/neu-overexpressing tumor cells, and inhibition of colony formation in vitro and growth of p185HER2/neu-expressing tumors in athymic mice. In addition, the mimetic sensitizes the tumor cells to apoptosis when used in conjunction with ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. A comparison of the molar quantities of the Herceptin antibody and the AHNP mimetic required for inhibiting cell growth and anchorage-independent growth showed generally similar activities. The structure-based derivation of the AHNP represents a novel strategy for the design of receptor-specific tumor therapies.

206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The in vivo substrates of meprins are unknown, but the abundant expression of these proteinases in the epithelial cells of the intestine, kidney and skin provide clues to their functions.
Abstract: The astacins are a subfamily of the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases. The first to be characterized was the crayfish enzyme astacin. To date more than 200 members of this family have been identified in species ranging from bacteria to humans. Astacins are involved in developmental morphogenesis, matrix assembly, tissue differentiation and digestion. Family members include the procollagen C-proteinase (BMP1, bone morphogenetic protein 1), tolloid and mammalian tolloid-like, HMP (Hydra vulgaris metalloproteinase), sea urchin BP10 (blastula protein) and SPAN (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus astacin), the 'hatching' subfamily comprising alveolin, ovastacin, LCE, HCE ('low' and 'high' choriolytic enzymes), nephrosin (from carp head kidney), UVS.2 from frog, and the meprins. In the human and mouse genomes, there are six astacin family genes (two meprins, three BMP1/tolloid-like, one ovastacin), but in Caenorhabditis elegans there are 40. Meprins are the only astacin proteinases that function on the membrane and extracellularly by virtue of the fact that they can be membrane-bound or secreted. They are unique in their domain structure and covalent subunit dimerization, oligomerization propensities, and expression patterns. They are normally highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, localize to specific membranes or extracellular spaces, and can hydrolyse biologically active peptides, cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and cell-surface proteins. The in vivo substrates of meprins are unknown, but the abundant expression of these proteinases in the epithelial cells of the intestine, kidney and skin provide clues to their functions.

160 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: RXP 407, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the N-terminal active site of wild ACE, may lead to a new generation of ACE inhibitors able to block in vivo only a subset of the different functions regulated by ACE.
Abstract: The human somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) contains two homologous domains, each bearing a zinc-dependent active site. All of the synthetic inhibitors of this enzyme used in clinical applications interact with these two active sites to a similar extent. Recently, several lines of evidence have suggested that the N-terminal active site of ACE might be involved in specific hydrolysis of some important physiological substrates, like Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline, a negative regulator of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. These findings have stimulated studies aimed at identifying new ACE inhibitors able to block only one of the two active sites of this enzyme. By screening phosphinic peptide libraries, we discovered a phosphinic peptide Ac-Asp-(L)Pheψ(PO2-CH2)(L)Ala-Ala-NH2, called RXP 407, which is able to differentiate the two ACE active sites, with a dissociation constant three orders of magnitude lower for the N-domain of the enzyme. The usefulness of a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop new lead structures is underscored by the unusual chemical structure of RXP 407, as compared with classical ACE inhibitors. As a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the N-terminal active site of wild ACE (Ki = 12 nM), RXP 407, which is metabolically stable in vivo, may lead to a new generation of ACE inhibitors able to block in vivo only a subset of the different functions regulated by ACE.

158 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review is focused on the most promising sortase A inhibitor compounds that are currently in development as leads towards a new class of anti-infective drugs that are urgently needed to help combat the alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance.
Abstract: Sortase A is a membrane enzyme responsible for the anchoring of surface-exposed proteins to the cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. As a well-studied member of the sortase subfamily catalysing the cell wall anchoring of important virulence factors to the surface of staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci, sortase A plays a critical role in Gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis. It is thus considered a promising target for the development of new anti-infective drugs that aim to interfere with important Gram-positive virulence mechanisms, such as adhesion to host tissues, evasion of host defences, and biofilm formation. The additional properties of sortase A as an enzyme that is not required for Gram-positive bacterial growth or viability and is conveniently located on the cell membrane making it more accessible to inhibitor targeting, constitute additional reasons reinforcing the view that sortase A is an ideal target for anti-virulence drug development. Many inhibitors of sortase A have been identified to date using high-throughput or in silico screening of compound libraries (synthetic or natural), and while many have proved useful tools for probing the action model of the enzyme, several are also promising candidates for the development into potent inhibitors. This review is focused on the most promising sortase A inhibitor compounds that are currently in development as leads towards a new class of anti-infective drugs that are urgently needed to help combat the alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance.

108 citations


01 Dec 2014
Abstract: Sortase A is a membrane enzyme responsible for the anchoring of surface-exposed proteins to the cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. As a well-studied member of the sortase subfamily catalysing the cell wall anchoring of important virulence factors to the surface of staphylococci, enterococci and streptococci, sortase A plays a critical role in Gram-positive bacterial pathogenesis. It is thus considered a promising target for the development of new anti-infective drugs that aim to interfere with important Gram-positive virulence mechanisms, such as adhesion to host tissues, evasion of host defences, and biofilm formation. The additional properties of sortase A as an enzyme that is not required for Gram-positive bacterial growth or viability and is conveniently located on the cell membrane making it more accessible to inhibitor targeting, constitute additional reasons reinforcing the view that sortase A is an ideal target for anti-virulence drug development. Many inhibitors of sortase A have been identified to date using high-throughput or in silico screening of compound libraries (synthetic or natural), and while many have proved useful tools for probing the action model of the enzyme, several are also promising candidates for the development into potent inhibitors. This review is focused on the most promising sortase A inhibitor compounds that are currently in development as leads towards a new class of anti-infective drugs that are urgently needed to help combat the alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance.

93 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 1988-Science
TL;DR: Human complementary DNA clones corresponding to three polypeptides present in this BMP preparation have been isolated, and expression of the recombinant human proteins have been obtained, and each appears to be independently capable of inducing the formation of cartilage in vivo.
Abstract: Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation as well as the constitutive elements supplied by the animal during this process have long remained unclear. Amino acid sequence has been derived from a highly purified preparation of BMP from bovine bone. Now, human complementary DNA clones corresponding to three polypeptides present in this BMP preparation have been isolated, and expression of the recombinant human proteins have been obtained. Each of the three (BMP-1, BMP-2A, and BMP-3) appears to be independently capable of inducing the formation of cartilage in vivo. Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule.

3,835 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

1,662 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: X‐ray crystal structures of two zinc endopeptidases, astacin from crayfish and adamalysin II from snake venom, reveal a strong overall topological equivalence and virtually identical extended HEXXHXXGXXH zinc‐binding segments, but in addition a methionine‐containing turn of similar conformation (the ‘Met‐turn’), which forms a hydrophobic basis for the zinc ion and the three liganding histidine residues.
Abstract: The X-ray crystal structures of two zinc endopeptidases, astacin from crayfish, and adamalysin II from snake venom, reveal a strong overall topological equivalence and virtually identical extended HEXXHXXGXXH zinc-binding segments, but in addition a methionine-containing turn of similar conformation (the ‘Met-turn’), which forms a hydrophobic basis for the zinc ion and the three liganding histidine residues. These two features are also present in a similar arrangement in the matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) and in the large bacterial Serratia proteinase-like peptidases (serralysins). We suggest that these four proteinases represent members of distinct subfamilies which can be grouped together in a family, for which we propose the designation, metzincins.

695 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The corresponding four distinct families of zinc peptidases, the astacins, the matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins, collagenases), the adamalysins/reprolysins (snake venom proteinases/reproductive tract proteins), and the serralysins appear to have originated by divergent evolution from a common ancestor and form a superfamily of proteolytic enzymes for which the designation “metzincins” has been proposed.
Abstract: The three-dimensional structures of the zinc endopeptidases human neutrophil collagenase, adamalysin II from rattle snake venom, alkaline proteinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and astacin from crayfish are topologically similar, with respect to a five-stranded beta-sheet and three alpha-helices arranged in typical sequential order. The four proteins exhibit the characteristic consensus motif HEXXHXXGXXH, whose three histidine residues are involved in binding of the catalytically essential zinc ion. Moreover, they all share a conserved methionine residue beneath the active site metal as part of a superimposable "Met-turn." This structural relationship is supported by a sequence alignment performed on the basis of topological equivalence showing faint but distinct sequential similarity. The alkaline proteinase is about equally distant (26% sequence identity) to both human neutrophil collagenase and astacin and a little further away from adamalysin II (17% identity). The pairs astacin/adamalysin II, astacin/human neutrophil collagenase, and adamalysin II/human neutrophil collagenase exhibit sequence identities of 16%, 14%, and 13%, respectively. Therefore, the corresponding four distinct families of zinc peptidases, the astacins, the matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins, collagenases), the adamalysins/reprolysins (snake venom proteinases/reproductive tract proteins), and the serralysins (large bacterial proteases from Serratia, Erwinia, and Pseudomonas) appear to have originated by divergent evolution from a common ancestor and form a superfamily of proteolytic enzymes for which the designation "metzincins" has been proposed. There is also a faint but significant structural relationship of the metzincins to the thermolysin-like enzymes, which share the truncated zinc-binding motif HEXXH and, moreover, similar topologies in their N-terminal domains.

650 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jan 1996-Science
TL;DR: This demonstration of enzymatic activity for a BMP-1/TLD-like protein links an enzyme involved in matrix deposition to genes involved in pattern formation in vertebrate extracellular matrix.
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are bone-derived factors capable of inducing ectopic bone formation. Unlike other BMPs, BMP-1 is not like transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), but it is the prototype of a family of putative proteases implicated in pattern formation during development in diverse organisms. Although some members of this group, such as Drosophila tolloid (TLD), are postulated to activate TGF-β-like proteins, actual substrates are unknown. Procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) cleaves the COOH-propeptides of procollagens I, II, and III to yield the major fibrous components of vertebrate extracellular matrix. Here it is shown that BMP-1 and PCP are identical. This demonstration of enzymatic activity for a BMP-1/TLD-like protein links an enzyme involved in matrix deposition to genes involved in pattern formation.

488 citations