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Journal ArticleDOI

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors reduce human dendritic cell inflammatory cytokine production and Th1-polarizing capacity.

01 Jul 2003-International Immunology (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 15, Iss: 7, pp 827-835

TL;DR: Findings indicate that PDE4 inhibitors can affect T cell responses by acting at the DC level and may increase the understanding of the therapeutic implication of PDE 4 inhibitors for T(h)1-mediated disorders.

AbstractInhibitors of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 have been shown to inhibit inflammatory mediator release and T cell proliferation, and are considered candidate therapies for T(h)1-mediated diseases. However, little is known about how PDE4 inhibitors influence dendritic cells (DC), the cells responsible for the priming of naive T(h) cells. Therefore, we investigated the PDE profile of monocyte-derived DC, and whether PDE4 inhibitors modulate DC cytokine production and T cell-polarizing capacity. We mainly found cAMP-specific PDE4 enzymatic activity in both immature and mature DC. In contrast to monocytes that mainly express PDE4B, we found that PDE4A is the predominant PDE4 subtype present in DC. Immature DC showed reduced ability to produce IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha upon lipopolysaccharide or CD40 ligand (CD40L) stimulation in the presence of PDE4 inhibitors, whereas cytokine production upon CD40L stimulation of fully mature DC in the presence of PDE4 inhibitors was not affected. Exposure to PDE4 inhibitors for 2 days during DC maturation did not influence T cell-stimulatory capacity or acquisition of a mature phenotype, but increased the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Furthermore, DC matured in the presence of PDE4 inhibitors showed reduced capacity to produce IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha upon subsequent CD40L stimulation. Using these PDE4 inhibitor-matured DC to stimulate naive T cells resulted in a reduction of IFN-gamma-producing (T(h)1) cells. These findings indicate that PDE4 inhibitors can affect T cell responses by acting at the DC level and may increase our understanding of the therapeutic implication of PDE4 inhibitors for T(h)1-mediated disorders.

Topics: T cell (61%), Dendritic cell (58%), CD40 (55%), Priming (immunology) (55%), Cytokine (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A number of strategies are currently being pursued in attempts to improve clinical efficacy and reduce side effects, including delivery via the inhaled route, and/or development of non‐emetic PDE4 inhibitors and mixed PDE inhibitors.
Abstract: Phosphodiesterase4 inhibitors are currently under development for the treatment of respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The rationale for the development of this drug class stems from our understanding of the role of PDE4 in suppressing the function of a range of inflammatory and resident cells thought to contribute toward the pathogenesis of these diseases. Similarly, numerous preclinical in vivo studies have shown that PDE4 inhibitors suppress characteristic features of these diseases, namely, cell recruitment, activation of inflammatory cells and physiological changes in lung function in response to a range of insults to the airways. These potentially beneficial actions of PDE4 inhibitors have been successfully translated in phase II and III clinical trials with roflumilast and cilomilast. However, dose limiting side effects of nausea, diarrhoea and headache have tempered the enthusiasm of this drug class for the treatment of these respiratory diseases. A number of strategies are currently being pursued in attempts to improve clinical efficacy and reduce side effects, including delivery via the inhaled route, and/or development of non-emetic PDE4 inhibitors and mixed PDE inhibitors.

302 citations


Cites background from "Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors redu..."

  • ..., 2005) Monocyte B 4A, D 7 Inhibition of TNF-a release (Hatzelmann and Schudt, 2001; Smith et al., 2003; Heystek et al., 2003; Jones et al., 2005) Macrophages A, B, D 1, 3, 7 Inhibition of TNF-a release (Gantner et al....

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  • ..., 2004) DCs A4B, D 1, 3 Inhibition of TNF-a release (Hatzelmann and Schudt, 2001; Heystek et al., 2003) Mast cells Little if any mast cell stabilization (Weston et al....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Peter H. Schafer1
TL;DR: Apremilast is an orally available targeted PDE4 inhibitor that modulates a wide array of inflammatory mediators involved in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, including decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and interleukin (IL)-23 and increases IL-10.
Abstract: Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are common clinical conditions that negatively impact health-related quality of life and are linked to serious medical comorbidities. Disease mechanisms involve local and systemic chronic inflammatory processes. Available biologic therapies specifically target single inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in the context of a larger inflammatory signaling cascade. To interrupt this pathological cascade earlier in the response or further upstream, and return pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling to a homeostatic balance, the use of a phosphodiesterase4 (PDE4) inhibitor has been explored. PDE4 is the major enzyme class responsible for the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular second messenger that controls a network of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. With PDE4 inhibition, and the resulting increases in cAMP levels in immune and non-immune cell types, expression of a network of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators can be modulated. Apremilast is an orally available targeted PDE4 inhibitor that modulates a wide array of inflammatory mediators involved in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, including decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and interleukin (IL)-23 and increases IL-10. In phase II studies of subjects with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, apremilast reversed features of the inflammatory pathophysiology in skin and joints and significantly reduces clinical symptoms. The use of an oral targeted PDE4 inhibitor for chronic inflammatory diseases, like psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, represents a novel treatment approach that does not target any single mediator, but rather focuses on restoring a balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals.

277 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Apremilast, given orally at 20 or 30 mg twice daily, seems to be efficacious, safe, and tolerable for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, and these results support continuing, longer-term studies.
Abstract: Summary Background Apremilast, a small-molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, works intracellularly to modulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production, and doses of 20 mg twice daily have shown efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in a 12-week phase 2 study. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of different doses of apremilast in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Methods In this phase 2b, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, patients (aged ≥18 years) with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive oral placebo or apremilast 10, 20, or 30 mg twice daily at 35 US and Canadian sites between Sept 24, 2008, and Oct 21, 2009. At week 16, patients in the placebo group were assigned apremilast 20 or 30 mg twice daily until week 24. Randomisation was generated with a permuted-block randomisation list via interactive voice response system. For the first 16 weeks, treatment assignment was concealed from both investigators and participants. During weeks 16–24, investigators and participants all knew that treatment was active, but the dose was concealed. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving at least 75% reduction from baseline psoriasis area and severity index (PASI-75) at week 16. Analyses were by intention to treat; missing values were imputed by last-observation-carried-forward. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00773734. Findings 89 patients were randomly assigned apremilast 10 mg, 87 apremilast 20 mg, and 88 apremilast 30 mg twice daily; 88 were assigned placebo. At week 16, PASI-75 was achieved in five patients (6%) assigned placebo, ten (11%) assigned apremilast 10 mg, 25 (29%) assigned 20 mg, and 36 (41%) assigned 30 mg. Apremilast 10 mg did not differ significantly from placebo in achievement of the endpoint (odds ratio 2·10; 95% CI 0·69–6·42); for both apremilast 20 mg (6·69; 2·43–18·5; p Interpretation Apremilast, given orally at 20 or 30 mg twice daily, seems to be efficacious, safe, and tolerable for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Our results support continuing, longer-term studies. Funding Celgene Corporation.

213 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the cyclic AMP axis and its role as a regulator of immune functions is provided and the clinical and translational relevance of interventions with these processes are discussed.
Abstract: Nucleotide signaling molecules contribute to the regulation of cellular pathways. In the immune system, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is well established as a potent regulator of innate and adaptive immune cell functions. Therapeutic strategies to interrupt or enhance cAMP generation or effects have immunoregulatory potential in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Here, we provide an overview of the cyclic AMP axis and its role as a regulator of immune functions and discuss the clinical and translational relevance of interventions with these processes.

140 citations


Cites background from "Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors redu..."

  • ...Pharmacological inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PDE4, which is highly expressed in DC, for example, suppresses the DC Th1-polarizing capacity (64, 65) and commands secretion of IL-6 and TGF-beta and subsequent induction of Th17 differentiation (66)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Various strategies that are currently being pursued to improve efficacy and reduce side-effects of PDE4 inhibitors, including delivery via the inhaled route, mixed PDE inhibitors and/or antisense biologicals targeted towards PDE 4 are discussed.
Abstract: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes which catalyse the metabolism of the intracellular cyclic nucleotides, c-AMP and c-GMP that are expressed in a variety of cell types and in the context of respiratory diseases, It is now recognised that the use of PDE3, PDE4 and mixed PDE3/4 inhibitors can provide clinical benefit to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The orally active PDE4 inhibitor Roflumilast-n-oxide has been approved for treatment of severe exacerbations of COPD as add-on therapy to standard drugs. This review discusses the involvement of PDEs in airway diseases and various strategies that are currently being pursued to improve efficacy and reduce side-effects of PDE4 inhibitors, including delivery via the inhaled route, mixed PDE inhibitors and/or antisense biologicals targeted towards PDE4.

126 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
19 Mar 1998-Nature
TL;DR: Once a neglected cell type, dendritic cells can now be readily obtained in sufficient quantities to allow molecular and cell biological analysis and the realization that these cells are a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system is realized.
Abstract: B and T lymphocytes are the mediators of immunity, but their function is under the control of dendritic cells. Dendritic cells in the periphery capture and process antigens, express lymphocyte co-stimulatory molecules, migrate to lymphoid organs and secrete cytokines to initiate immune responses. They not only activate lymphocytes, they also tolerize T cells to antigens that are innate to the body (self-antigens), thereby minimizing autoimmune reactions. Once a neglected cell type, dendritic cells can now be readily obtained in sufficient quantities to allow molecular and cell biological analysis. With knowledge comes the realization that these cells are a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system.

14,094 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cultured DCs are as efficient as antigen-specific B cells in presenting tetanus toxoid (TT) to specific T cell clones and their efficiency of antigen presentation can be further enhanced by specific antibodies via FcR- mediated antigen uptake.
Abstract: Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. These cells have typical dendritic morphology, express high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules, CD1, Fc gamma RII, CD40, B7, CD44, and ICAM-1, and lack CD14. Cultured DCs are highly stimulatory in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) and are also capable of triggering cord blood naive T cells. Most strikingly, these DCs are as efficient as antigen-specific B cells in presenting tetanus toxoid (TT) to specific T cell clones. Their efficiency of antigen presentation can be further enhanced by specific antibodies via FcR-mediated antigen uptake. Incubation of these cultured DCs with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) for 24 h results in an increased surface expression of MHC class I and class II molecules, B7, and ICAM-1 and in the appearance of the CD44 exon 9 splice variant (CD44-v9); by contrast, Fc gamma RII is markedly and sometimes completely downregulated. The functional consequences of the short contact with TNF-alpha are in increased T cell stimulatory capacity in MLR, but a 10-fold decrease in presentation of soluble TT and a 100-fold decrease in presentation of TT-immunoglobulin G complexes.

5,276 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The capacity of DCs to capture and process antigen could be modulated by exogenous stimuli was investigated and it was found that DCs respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha, CD40 ligand, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide with a coordinate series of changes that include downregulation of macropinocytosis and Fc receptors, disappearance of the class II compartment, and upregulation of adhesion and costimulatory molecules.
Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T cells. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture, we studied the endocytic capacity of DCs using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, horseradish peroxidase, and lucifer yellow. We found that DCs use two distinct mechanisms for antigen capture. The first is a high level of fluid phase uptake via macropinocytosis. In contrast to what has been found with other cell types, macropinocytosis in DCs is constitutive and allows continuous internalization of large volumes of fluid. The second mechanism of capture is mediated via the mannose receptor (MR), which is expressed at high levels on DCs. At low ligand concentrations, the MR can deliver a large number of ligands to the cell in successive rounds. Thus, while macropinocytosis endows DCs with a high capacity, nonsaturable mechanism for capture of any soluble antigen, the MR gives an extra capacity for antigen capture with some degree of selectivity for non-self molecules. In addition to their high endocytic capacity, DCs from GM-CSF + IL-4-dependent cultures are characterized by the presence of a large intracellular compartment that contains high levels of class II molecules, cathepsin D, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, and is rapidly accessible to endocytic markers. We investigated whether the capacity of DCs to capture and process antigen could be modulated by exogenous stimuli. We found that DCs respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha, CD40 ligand, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide with a coordinate series of changes that include downregulation of macropinocytosis and Fc receptors, disappearance of the class II compartment, and upregulation of adhesion and costimulatory molecules. These changes occur within 1-2 d and are irreversible, since neither pinocytosis nor the class II compartment are recovered when the maturation-inducing stimulus is removed. The specificity of the MR and the capacity to respond to inflammatory stimuli maximize the capacity of DCs to present infectious non-self antigens to T cells.

2,612 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that ligation of CD40 by CD40L triggers the production of extremely high levels of bioactive IL-12, which is the most potent stimulus in upregulating the expression of ICAM-1, CD80, and CD86 molecules on DCs.
Abstract: We investigated the possibility that T helper cells might enhance the stimulatory function of dendritic cells (DCs). We found that ligation of CD40 by CD40L triggers the production of extremely high levels of bioactive IL-12. Other stimuli such as microbial agents, TNF-alpha or LPS are much less effective or not at all. In addition, CD40L is the most potent stimulus in upregulating the expression of ICAM-1, CD80, and CD86 molecules on DCs. These effects of CD40 ligation result in an increased capacity of DCs to trigger proliferative responses and IFN-gamma production by T cells. These findings reveal a new role for CD40-CD40L interaction in regulating DC function and are relevant to design therapeutic strategies using cultured DCs.

2,092 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role played by chemokines and chemokine receptors in positioning T cells for the immune response is reviewed, with a focus on T-cell priming and delayed-type hypersensitivity or allergic reactions.
Abstract: T-cell priming occurs in the lymphoid tissue via T cell–dendritic cell interaction. Conversely, delayed-type hypersensitivity or allergic reactions can occur in any tissue, following interaction of T helper 1 (Th1) or Th2 cells with effector leukocytes. Here, Federica Sallusto and colleagues review the role played by chemokines and chemokine receptors in positioning T cells for the immune response.

911 citations