Journal ArticleDOI

# Photo-Response of Low Voltage Flexible TIPS-Pentacene Organic Field-Effect Transistors

15 Jun 2017-IEEE Sensors Journal (IEEE)-Vol. 17, Iss: 12, pp 3689-3697

TL;DR: In this paper, photo-response of solution processed flexible TIPS-pentacene organic field effect transistors is evaluated under illumination with visible light of red, green, and blue colors having minimum wavelengths of 620, 520, and 460 nm.

AbstractPhoto-response of solution processed flexible TIPS-pentacene organic field-effect transistors is evaluated under illumination with visible light of red, green, and blue colors having minimum wavelengths of 620, 520, and 460 nm. For −10 V operation, pristine photo-OFETs exhibited average field-effect mobility of 0.11 cm $^{2}\text{V}^{-1}\text{s}^{-1}$ , near zero threshold voltage, and current ON–OFF ratio of ~105. These photo-OFETs exhibited prevalent photovoltaic characteristics with shift in the threshold voltage upon illumination, which was found to increase with rising intensity, illumination time, and gate bias during illumination. For low-voltage operation at −5 V, maximum current modulation of $4\times 10^{4}$ and 102, and photo-responsivity of 17 mA/W and 35 mA/W, respectively, were achieved for blue (intensity of 1.7 mW/cm2) and green (intensity of 0.4 mW/cm2) light illuminations. However, these photo-OFETs did not show significant response to red light. A fast dynamic response to periodic pulses of illumination was also observed. For a gate bias of +10 V and illumination time of 500 s, maximum current modulation of 105 was achieved for blue light illumination.

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10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

TL;DR: In this article, the effect of ultra-violet (UV) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of solution processed flexible TIPS-pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been investigated.
Abstract: Effect of ultra-violet (UV) irradiation (λpeak = 365 nm) on the electrical characteristics of solution processed flexible TIPS-pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has been investigated Pristine TIPS-pentacene OFETs demonstrated average field-effect mobility of 01 cm2 V−1 s−1, with near zero threshold voltage and current on-off ratio of ∼104 On UV irradiation, OFETs displayed a joint photoconductive and photovoltaic effect due to photo-generated excitons The maximum current modulation and photo-responsivity obtained from these OFETs were ∼500 and ∼43 mA/W respectively at an intensity of 18 mW/cm2 while operating at a low voltage of −5 V On increasing the irradiation time, a positive shift in the threshold voltage was observed At larger values of irradiation time, a roll-off in maximum drain current and mobility values were observed, which was attributed to slight deterioration in crystallinity due to prolonged UV exposure, as confirmed from X-ray diffraction studies Similar trend was observed for mobility and threshold voltage values, when gate bias during UV irradiation was increased In addition, transistors exhibited a repeatable dynamic response to periodic pulses of UV irradiation

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

TL;DR: In this article, a combination of a thin layer of copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and TIPS-pentacene crystal was used to enhance the photo-sensing spectrum of photo-sensitive organic field effect transistors (photo-OFETs).
Abstract: In this work, a combination of a thin layer of Copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and TIPS-pentacene crystal was used to enhance the photo-sensing spectrum of photo- sensitive organic field-effect transistors (photo-OFETs). In TIPS-pentacene/CuPc bi-layer devices, the different conduction path not only reduced the total number of traps but also enhanced the sensing spectrum. It was found that, though the TIPS-pentacene was able to sense only blue and green colour well, and CuPc was able to sense only red and green colour well; the TIPS-pentacene/CuPc bi-layer were able to sense all three colors, enhancing the range of sensing. On illumination, bi-layer TIPS-pentacene/CuPc OFETs exhibited higher values of shift in threshold voltage (|ΔVTH|) compared to neat TIPS-pentacene and bare CuPc OFETs, due to change in the spatial distribution in the trap state density and associated pattern of trapping of photo-generated charge carriers. It was also found that the values of photo-responsivity (Rmax) and photo-detection time for the bi-layer OFETs were in between that for OFETs with TIPS-pentacene or CuPc.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

14 May 2021-Polymer
TL;DR: In this paper, the crucial role of molecular weight of the polymer dielectric in regulating the electrical performance and photo-response of TIPS-pentacene OFETs has been explored using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the polymer layer.
Abstract: The crucial role of molecular weight of the polymer dielectric in regulating the electrical performance and photo-response of TIPS-pentacene OFETs has been explored using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the polymer dielectric layer. With increasing molecular weight of PVA, a degradation in the electrical and photo-response was observed. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that with increase in PVA molecular weight, polarizability of PVA dielectric layer and thus strength of the OFET channel reduced due to decreased hydroxyl group concentration oriented perpendicular to the PVA-semiconductor interface. Further, due to rising surface roughness of underlying PVA film with its molecular weight, macroscopic irregularities and therefore trap density in the active layer grown over it also increases. Therefore, both of these molecular weight dependent factors influence overall device performance and photo-response of OFETs in a critical way.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) structure has been fabricated using ambipolar 6, 13-bis (triisopropylsilyl ethynyl) pentacene (TIPSP) with a channel length of 90 nm, for the first time the authors are using transistor efficiency to extract VOFET's parameters.
Abstract: A simple vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) structure has been fabricated using ambipolar 6, 13-bis (triisopropylsilyl ethynyl) pentacene (TIPSP) with a channel length (L) of 90 nm. This device can operate at –2 V which is much lower than the voltage, reported so far for the organic devices based on TIPSP. The first time, the authors are using transistor efficiency to extract VOFET's parameters. The threshold voltage (V th) of the device has been found to vary between 0.18 and 0.38 V with the current on/off ratio (I on /I off) of 104. The mobility (µ) of the device has been calculated as 0.62 cm2/Vs. The sub-threshold slope, transconductance (gm ), output conductance (g d), and early voltage (V E) have been found to be 140 ± 30 mV/decade, 2 µS, 10−6 S, and 1.3 ± 2 V, respectively.

1 citations

##### References
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TL;DR: In this review, recent developments in the area of high-electron-mobility diimides based on rylenes and related aromatic cores, particularly perylene- and naphthalene-diimide-based small molecules and polymers, for application in high-performance organic field-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells are summarized and analyzed.
Abstract: Organic electron-transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, photovoltaic cells, n-channel field-effect transistors, and complementary logic circuits. Rylene diimides are a robust, versatile class of polycyclic aromatic electron-transport materials with excellent thermal and oxidative stability, high electron affinities, and, in many cases, high electron mobilities; they are, therefore, promising candidates for a variety of organic electronics applications. In this review, recent developments in the area of high-electron-mobility diimides based on rylenes and related aromatic cores, particularly perylene- and naphthalene-diimide-based small molecules and polymers, for application in high-performance organic field-effect transistors and photovoltaic cells are summarized and analyzed.

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21 Jul 2011-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid–air interfaces.
Abstract: Printing electronic devices using semiconducting 'ink' is seen as a promising route to cheap, large-area and flexible electronics, but the performance of such devices suffers from the relatively poor crystallinity of the printed material. Hiromi Minemawari and colleagues have developed an inkjet-based printing technique involving controlled mixing on a surface of two solutions — the semiconductor (C8-BTBT) in its solvent and a liquid in which the semiconductor is insoluble. The products of this antisolvent crystallization technique are thin semiconductor films with exceptionally high and uniform crystallinity. The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science1. Whether based on inorganic2,3,4,5 or organic6,7,8 materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. ‘Printed electronics’ is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials9,10,11. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials12,13, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization14 with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid–air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm2 V−1 s−1. This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

1,341 citations

### "Photo-Response of Low Voltage Flexi..." refers background in this paper

• ...SOLUTION processed organic field effect transistors (OFETs) are receiving global attention as alternatives to their inorganic counterparts because of various advantages, low cost and simplicity being prime among many [1]–[5]....

[...]

Journal ArticleDOI
, Jie Xu2, Jie Xu1, Gi Xue2
TL;DR: An approach--termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE)--that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films and may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics.
Abstract: Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of thin-film morphology. Here, we report an approach—termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE)—that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films. We designed a micropillar-patterned printing blade to induce recirculation in the ink for enhancing crystal growth, and engineered the curvature of the ink meniscus to control crystal nucleation. Using FLUENCE, we demonstrate the fast coating and patterning of millimetre-wide, centimetre-long, highly aligned single-crystalline organic semiconductor thin films. In particular, we fabricated thin films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene having non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains and an unprecedented average and maximum mobilities of 8.1±1.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 11 cm2 V−1 s−1. FLUENCE of organic semiconductors with non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics. Solution printing of organic semiconductors could in principle be scaled to industrial needs, yet attaining aligned single-crystals directly with this method has been challenging. By using a micropillar-patterned printing blade designed to enhance the control of crystal nucleation and growth, thin films of macroscopic, highly aligned single crystals of organic semiconductors can now be fabricated.

779 citations

### "Photo-Response of Low Voltage Flexi..." refers background in this paper

• ...TIPS-pentacene crystals were found to exhibit their general terracing morphology [39], [40]....

[...]

Journal ArticleDOI
, Yan Zhao2, Gui Yu2, Ming Lin1
TL;DR: This optimised polymer semiconductor represents a significant progress in semiconductor development, dispelling prevalent skepticism surrounding practical usability of organic semiconductors for high-performance microelectronic devices, opening up application opportunities hitherto functionally or economically inaccessible with silicon technologies, and providing an excellent structural framework for fundamental studies of charge transport in organic systems.
Abstract: Microelectronic circuits/arrays produced via high-speed printing instead of traditional photolithographic processes offer an appealing approach to creating the long-sought after, low-cost, large-area flexible electronics. Foremost among critical enablers to propel this paradigm shift in manufacturing is a stable, solution-processable, high-performance semiconductor for printing functionally capable thin-film transistors — fundamental building blocks of microelectronics. We report herein the processing and optimisation of solution-processable polymer semiconductors for thin-film transistors, demonstrating very high field-effect mobility, high on/off ratio, and excellent shelf-life and operating stabilities under ambient conditions. Exceptionally high-gain inverters and functional ring oscillator devices on flexible substrates have been demonstrated. This optimised polymer semiconductor represents a significant progress in semiconductor development, dispelling prevalent skepticism surrounding practical usability of organic semiconductors for high-performance microelectronic devices, opening up application opportunities hitherto functionally or economically inaccessible with silicon technologies, and providing an excellent structural framework for fundamental studies of charge transport in organic systems.

767 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

TL;DR: This work reports on an easily attainable donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer semiconductor: poly(thienoisoindigo-alt-naphthalene) (PTIIG-Np), which represents a major step toward truly viable plastic electronics.
Abstract: By considering the qualitative benefits associated with solution rheology and mechanical properties of polymer semiconductors, it is expected that polymer-based electronic devices will soon enter our daily lives as indispensable elements in a myriad of flexible and ultra low-cost flat panel displays. Despite more than a decade of research focused on designing and synthesizing state-of-the-art polymer semiconductors for improving charge transport characteristics, the current mobility values are still not sufficient for many practical applications. The confident mobility in excess of ∼10 cm2/V·s is the most important requirement for enabling the realization of the aforementioned near-future products. We report on an easily attainable donor–acceptor (D–A) polymer semiconductor: poly(thienoisoindigo-alt-naphthalene) (PTIIG-Np). An unprecedented mobility of 14.4 cm2/V·s, by using PTIIG-Np with a high-k gate dielectric poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)), is achieved from a simple coating p...

491 citations