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Journal ArticleDOI

Photocatalysis on TiO2 Surfaces - Principles, Mechanisms, and Selected Results

01 May 1995-Chemical Reviews (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 95, Iss: 3, pp 735-758

Abstract: In 1972, Fujishima and Honda discovered the photocatalytic splitting of water on TiO{sub 2} electrodes. This event marked the beginning of a new era in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Since then, research efforts in understanding the fundamental processes and in enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2} have come from extensive research performed by chemists, physicists, and chemical engineers. Such studies are often related to energy renewal and energy storage. In recent years, applications to environmental cleanup have been one of the most active areas in heterogeneous photocatalysis. This is inspired by the potential application of TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalysts for the total destruction of organic compounds in polluted air and wastewaters. There exists a vast body of literature dealing with the electron transfer and energy transfer processes in photocatalytic reactions. A detailed description of these processes is beyond the scope of this review. Here, the authors tend to focus on interfacial processes and to summarize some of the operating principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis. In section 2, the authors first look at the electronic excitation processes in a molecule and in a semiconductor substrate. The electronic interaction between the adsorbate molecule and the catalyst substrate is discussed in terms of the catalyzed ormore » sensitized photoreactions. In section 3, thermal and photocatalytic studies on TiO{sub 2} are summarized with emphasis on the common characteristics and fundamental principles of the TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalysis systems. In section 4, they address the research effort in the electronic modification of the semiconductor catalysts and its effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. Several representative examples will be presented including the Schottky barrier formation and modification at metal-semiconductor interfaces. Some concluding remarks and future research directions will be given in the final section. 160 refs.« less
Topics: Photocatalysis (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ryoji Asahi1, Takeshi Morikawa1, T. Ohwaki1, Koyu Aoki1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
13 Jul 2001-Science
TL;DR: Film and powders of TiO2-x Nx have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO2) under visible light in optical absorption and photocatalytic activity such as photodegradations of methylene blue and gaseous acetaldehyde and hydrophilicity of the film surface.
Abstract: To use solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently, we sought a photocatalyst with high reactivity under visible light. Films and powders of TiO 2- x N x have revealed an improvement over titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) under visible light (wavelength 2 has proven to be indispensable for band-gap narrowing and photocatalytic activity, as assessed by first-principles calculations and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

10,756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Xiaobo Chen1, Samuel S. Mao1Institutions (1)
23 Jun 2007-Chemical Reviews

8,742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ulrike Diebold1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0) The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2 (1 1 0) surfaces are given The structure of the TiO 2 (1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs–Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed The tendency to ‘wet’ the overlayer, the growth morphology, the epitaxial relationship, and the strength of the interfacial oxidation/reduction reaction all follow clear trends across the periodic table, with the reactivity of the overlayer metal towards oxygen being the most decisive factor Alkali atoms form ordered superstructures at low coverages Recent progress in understanding the surface structure of metals in the ‘strong-metal support interaction’ (SMSI) state is summarized Literature is reviewed on the adsorption and reaction of a wide variety of inorganic molecules (H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , NO x , sulfur- and halogen-containing molecules, rare gases) as well as organic molecules (carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, alkynes, pyridine and its derivates, silanes, methyl halides) The application of TiO 2 -based systems in photo-active devices is discussed, and the results on UHV-based photocatalytic studies are summarized The review ends with a brief conclusion and outlook of TiO 2 -based surface science for the future

6,656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Mar 2005-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties are equally important.
Abstract: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone, 404-8940292; fax, 404-894-0294; e-mail, mostafa.el-sayed@ † Case Western Reserve UniversitysMillis 2258. ‡ Phone, 216-368-5918; fax, 216-368-3006; e-mail, § Georgia Institute of Technology. 1025 Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1025−1102

6,510 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Scientific studies on photocatalysis started about two and a half decades ago. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which is one of the most basic materials in our daily life, has emerged as an excellent photocatalyst material for environmental purification. In this review, current progress in the area of TiO 2 photocatalysis, mainly photocatalytic air purification, sterilization and cancer therapy are discussed together with some fundamental aspects. A novel photoinduced superhydrophilic phenomenon involving TiO 2 and its applications are presented.

6,367 citations

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01 Jan 1962-

23,982 citations

01 Jan 1971-
Abstract: Introduction. Section I: Measurement Basics. Electrical Components and Circuits. Operational Amplifiers in Chemical Instrumentation. Digital Electronics and Microcomputers. Signals and Noise. Section II: Atomic Spectroscopy. An Introduction to Spectrometric Methods. Components of Optical Instruments. An Introduction to Optical Atomic Spectrometry. Atomic Absorption and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Atomic Mass Spectrometry. Atomic X-Ray Spectrometry. Section III: Molecular Spectroscopy. An Introduction to Ultraviolet/Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry. Applications of Ultraviolet/Visible Molecular Absorption Spectrometry. Molecular Luminescence Spectrometry. An Introduction to Infrared Spectrometry Applications of Infrared Spectrometry. Raman Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Molecular Mass Spectrometry. Surface Characterisation by Spectroscopy and Microscopy. Section IV: Electroanalytical Chemistry. Introduction to Electroanalytical Chemistry. Potentiometry. Coulometry. Voltammetry. Section V: Separation Methods. An Introduction to Chromatographic Separations. Gas Chromatography. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction. Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography. Section VI: Miscellaneous Methods. Thermal Methods. Radiochemical Methods. Automated Methods of Analysis. Appendices.

3,238 citations

01 Feb 1990-

3,166 citations

01 Oct 1989-
Abstract: The book is devoted to the study of photocatalysis, a very popular area of modern-day chemistry. The various chapters will cover aspects of the field that are of particular interest to those at the top in research expertise. Among the subjects discussed are: the theory and preparation of semiconductor mate- rials, the various types of heterogeneous photocatalysis methods, absorption and desorption in photocatalysis, and applied photoca- talysis in energy production. A knowledge of photochemistry is not essential as the format and selection of topics make the field evolve naturally. The student is first introduced to the meaning of photocatalysis and subsequently taken through the essentials of photochemistry towards bridging it to semiconductor materials. The reader is also introduced to the colloidal state of semiconductors followed by thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of photocatalysis. The book is aimed at professional, faculty and graduate students in inorganic and physical chemistry, organic chemistry, oganometallic chemistry, and catalysis.

1,655 citations

01 Jan 1978-

1,644 citations

"Photocatalysis on TiO2 Surfaces - P..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Figure 2.9. (I) Catalyzed photoreaction, initial excitation of adsorbate, and ( 11 ) Sensitized photoreaction, initial excitation of solid....


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