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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41566-021-00771-5

Photonic-crystal lasers with two-dimensionally arranged gain and loss sections for high-peak-power short-pulse operation

04 Mar 2021-Nature Photonics (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 15, Iss: 4, pp 311-318
Abstract: Realizing high-peak-power (tens to hundreds of watts or higher) short-pulse (tens of picoseconds or less) operation in semiconductor lasers is crucial for state-of-the-art applications including eye-safe high-resolution remote sensing and non-thermal ultrafine material processing. However, it has been challenging to introduce mechanisms that enable stable high-peak-power short-pulse operation in conventional semiconductor lasers. Here, we propose photonic crystal lasers that have two-dimensionally arranged gain and loss sections to enable high-peak-power short-pulse operation in the fundamental mode while suppressing lasing in higher-order modes to avoid laser instability. On the basis of this concept, we experimentally realize a high peak power of ~20 W and a short pulse width of ~35 ps with an injection current of only 3-4 A using a 400-μm-diameter device and theoretically predict that even higher peak power (>300 W) can be achieved in a 1-mm-diameter device. Our results will contribute to the realization of next-generation laser sources for the aforementioned applications. By using engineered gain and loss sections in a photonic crystal laser, pulses with a peak power of ~20 W and pulse width of ~35 ps have been experimentally demonstrated and even higher peak power operation (>300 W) has been theoretically predicted.

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Topics: Semiconductor laser theory (59%), Laser (55%), Photonic crystal (54%) ... show more

6 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/2515-7647/ABEA06
18 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is a key technology for smart mobility of robots, agricultural and construction machines, and autonomous vehicles. However, current LiDAR systems often rely on semiconductor lasers with low-quality, large-divergence, and asymmetric beams, requiring high-precision integration of complicated lens systems to reshape the beam. Also, due to the broad linewidth and the large temperature dependence of their lasing spectrum, a bandpass filter with broad bandwidth must be used in front of the detector, so the detected signal is affected by noise from background light such as sunlight. These critical issues limit the performance, compactness, affordability, and reliability of the LiDAR systems. Photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) have attracted much attention as novel semiconductor lasers that can solve the issues of conventional semiconductor lasers owing to their capability of high-quality, very-narrow-divergence, and symmetric beam operation supported by broad-area band-edge resonance in their two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, we show the progress and the state of the art of broad-area coherent PCSELs and their application to a time-of-flight (ToF) LiDAR system. We first review the progress of PCSELs made so far. Next, we show recent progress based on PCSELs with a double-lattice structure that enables higher-power and narrower-divergence operation while keeping a symmetric beam shape. By optimizing the double-lattice photonic crystal and the reflective properties of a backside distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), we achieve a high peak power of 10 W while maintaining a nearly diffraction-limited beam divergence of ∼0.1° (FWHM) from a 500 µm diameter resonator. Using this PCSEL, we construct a LiDAR system that uses no external lens system in its light source and demonstrate highly spatially resolved ToF sensing (measurement range of ∼20 m), which is appropriate for autonomous robots and factory automation.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/OE.427783
Shumpei Katsuno1, Takuya Inoue1, Masahiro Yoshida1, Menaka De Zoysa1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
02 Aug 2021-Optics Express
Abstract: We develop a self-consistent theoretical model for simulating the lasing characteristics of photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs) under continuous-wave (CW) operation that takes into account thermal effects caused by current injection. Our model enables us to analyze the lasing characteristics of PCSELs under CW operation by solving self-consistently the changes in the in-plane optical gain and refractive index distribution, which is associated with heat generation and temperature rise, and the change in the oscillation modes. We reveal that the lasing band-edge selectivity and beam quality of the PCSELs are affected by the spatial distribution of the band-edge frequency of the photonic crystal formed by the refractive index distribution, which depends on the temperature distribution in the resonator. Furthermore, we show that single-mode lasing with narrow beam divergence can be realized even at high current injection under CW operation by introducing a photonic-crystal structure with an artificially formed lattice constant distribution, which compensates such band-edge frequency distribution.

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Topics: Lasing threshold (57%), Laser beam quality (53%), Heat generation (53%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JQE.2021.3091153
Menaka De Zoysa1, Takuya Inoue1, Masahiro Yoshida1, Kenji Ishizaki1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser is a new-generation semiconductor laser capable of emitting a high-power, high-quality (i.e., high-brightness) beam, as well as on-chip two-dimensional beam steering, lasing in various wavelength regimes, and on-chip ultra-short self-pulsation, owing to their freedom of light-matter control. Here we introduce light detection as a new functionality, wherein the photonic-crystal laser is operated under reverse-bias conditions. We find that the photonic-crystal laser operated under reverse-bias conditions has a very high shunt resistance and a low dark current, which are essential qualities to achieve high detectivity. In addition, high responsivity is achieved by utilizing proper band-edge-modes and $Q$ -matching conditions for resonant light absorption. Furthermore, by employing photonic-crystal lasers as the detector as well as the laser source, a direct time-of-flight distance measurement is successfully demonstrated.

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Topics: Laser (63%), Lasing threshold (57%), Photonics (57%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2021.3095961
Abstract: Optical performances of 950 nm p-side up photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (PCSELs) with different types of air holes are numerically and experimentally investigated. Simulation results show an obvious distinction between effective index method and three dimensional finite-element method (FEM). Measured experiments including wavelength, threshold, and slope efficiency can well meet the FEM numerical predictions. It further reveals that the B mode dominates the laser action and the PCSELs accompanying with equilateral triangle and right isosceles triangle holes possess a lower threshold current and higher radiation than symmetric circle holes. The output power can be further enhanced by increasing the filling factor of air holes before the regrowth process.

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Topics: Photonic crystal (55%), Slope efficiency (54%), Isosceles triangle (51%) ... show more


24 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.2321027
06 Apr 1990-Science
Abstract: Molecular excitation by the simultaneous absorption of two photons provides intrinsic three-dimensional resolution in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The excitation of fluorophores having single-photon absorption in the ultraviolet with a stream of strongly focused subpicosecond pulses of red laser light has made possible fluorescence images of living cells and other microscopic objects. The fluorescence emission increased quadratically with the excitation intensity so that fluorescence and photo-bleaching were confined to the vicinity of the focal plane as expected for cooperative two-photon excitation. This technique also provides unprecedented capabilities for three-dimensional, spatially resolved photochemistry, particularly photolytic release of caged effector molecules.

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8,458 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.14.002716
Abstract: Ablation of metal targets by Ti:sapphire laser radiation is studied. The ablation depth per pulse is measured for laser pulse durations between 150 fs and 30 ps and fluences ranging from the ablation threshold ∼0.1 J/cm2 up to 10 J/cm2. Two different ablation regimes are observed for the first time. In both cases the ablation depth per pulse depends logarithmically on the laser fluence. A simple theoretical model for a qualitative description of the experimental results is presented.

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Topics: Laser ablation (67%), Ablation (59%), Femtosecond pulse shaping (58%) ... show more

843 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.124361
Abstract: Lasing action of a surface-emitting laser with a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure is investigated. The photonic crystal has a triangular-lattice structure composed of InP and air holes, which is integrated with an InGaAsP/InP multiple-quantum-well active layer by a wafer fusion technique. Uniform two-dimensional lasing oscillation based on the coupling of light propagating in six equivalent Γ−X directions is successfully observed, where the wavelength of the active layer is designed to match the folded (second-order) Γ point of the Γ−X direction. The very narrow divergence angle of far field pattern and/or the lasing spectrum, which is considered to reflect the two-dimensional stop band, also indicate that the lasing oscillation occurs coherently.

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Topics: Lasing threshold (64%), Gain-switching (62%), Photonic crystal (57%) ... show more

615 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS1747
Abstract: The recovery of objects obscured by scattering is an important goal in imaging and has been approached by exploiting, for example, coherence properties, ballistic photons or penetrating wavelengths. Common methods use scattered light transmitted through an occluding material, although these fail if the occluder is opaque. Light is scattered not only by transmission through objects, but also by multiple reflection from diffuse surfaces in a scene. This reflected light contains information about the scene that becomes mixed by the diffuse reflections before reaching the image sensor. This mixing is difficult to decode using traditional cameras. Here we report the combination of a time-of-flight technique and computational reconstruction algorithms to untangle image information mixed by diffuse reflection. We demonstrate a three-dimensional range camera able to look around a corner using diffusely reflected light that achieves sub-millimetre depth precision and centimetre lateral precision over 40 cm×40 cm×40 cm of hidden space. An important goal in optics is to image objects hidden by turbid media, although line-of-sight techniques fail when the obscuring medium becomes opaque. Veltenet al. use ultrafast imaging techniques to recover three-dimensional shapes of non-line-of-sight objects after reflection from diffuse surfaces.

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Topics: Ballistic photon (56%), Image sensor (55%), Opacity (53%) ... show more

516 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE18619
Can Kerse1, Hamit Kalaycioglu1, Parviz Elahi1, Barbaros Çetin1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Sep 2016-Nature
Abstract: The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

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Topics: Laser (56%), Ablation (55%), Ultrashort pulse (53%)

363 Citations

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