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Journal ArticleDOI

Physical activity in Iranian older adults who experienced fall during the past 12 months

31 Oct 2014-BMC Geriatrics (BioMed Central)-Vol. 14, Iss: 1, pp 115-115

TL;DR: It is suggested that perceived benefits could facilitate physical activity among elderly regardless of number of falls, self-reported health and daily living activities, and indeed the findings suggest that benefits exist when designing programs to increase physical activity.

AbstractBackground: Physical activity may have several benefits for elderly people. However, the risk of falling might prevent this population from showing interest in physical activity. This research was aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older persons who have experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011, in Tehran, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method a group of elderly people entered into the study. A multi-section questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic information, physical activity level, and different determinants that might influence physical activity. Several statistical tests including linear regression were used to analyze the data. Results: In all, 180 old people from 40 elderly centers (49 men and 131 women) took part in the study. The mean age of participants was 65.9±6.1 years. The result indicated that most participants experienced two or more falls during the last year (54.5%). Those who had more falls significantly scored lower on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p < 0.0001). ‘Keeping in touch with friends’ was the most important advantage cited by participants for performing physical activity. The results obtained from linear regression analysis showed that ‘perceived benefits’ was the only significant factor that associated with physical activity (β=1.03, p <0.001). Conclusion: The findings suggest that perceived benefits could facilitate physical activity among elderly regardless of number of falls, self-reported health and daily living activities. However, we observed inverse association between number of falls and physical activity. Indeed the findings suggest that we should reinforce benefits exist when designing programs to increase physical activity among elderly population.

Topics: Physical activity level (63%), Activities of daily living (53%), Population (52%), Poison control (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This cross sectional study was conducted to investigate cultural adaption and validation of the Persian version of the PASE among the elderly community dwellers in Iran and found that P-PASE scores were significantly and negatively correlated with TUG.
Abstract: This cross sectional study was conducted to investigate cultural adaption and validation of the Persian version of the PASE among the elderly community dwellers in Iran. Out of 278 elderly people, 65% of them were female. After translation and cultural adaption, the PASE was evaluated with respect to the validity and reliability. Regarding the construct validity, the concurrent validity was assessed between the PASE and ADL, IADL, self-rated health, and TUG test. The mean score of P-PASE was equal to 153.73 ± 48.47. P-PASE scores were significantly and negatively correlated with TUG (r = − 0.691, P 0.001), and were also significantly correlated with ADL (r = 0.775, P < 0.001), and IADL (r = 0.161, P < 0.001). The ICC was obtained as 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.94), 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.87), and 0.91 (95% CI 0.90–0.94) for the leisure time activity, household activity, and work-related activity scores, respectively. The Cronbachs alpha coefficient was equal to 0.74, 0.74, and 0.79, respectively for leisure time activity, household activity, and work-related activity domains.

8 citations


10 Dec 2018
TL;DR: The search for answers to the question “what is the best way to learn about Tibet” is hampered by a lack of knowledge about the country’s history and present situation.
Abstract: :شزیذپ خیرات هدیکچ هنیمس :فده و یکی ٍب نادىملاس تیعمج شیاشفا ٌدیدپ ٌسيزما شلاچ سا ماظو یدج یاَ تمتاس یااَ .تسا ٌدش لیدبت دازفا هیا سایو درًم تمتس تامدخ هیمات تُج سا یزیًارت ٍا ارا اٍالاام هایا سا فدَ ٍماوزب هیيدت ي نازیا ي ناُج رد نادىملاس تیعمج دشر دوير یشایر ي ااَ تاسایس ٍا ارا یازاب مسز یااَ عمج سا زشق هیا یازب یوامرد ي یتشادُب تامدخ یم تی .دشاب شور :اه یريزم ٍعلاطم کی ٍلاام هیا یدىملاس صًرخ رد .تسا ًاضًم اب طبتزم تزاام کاواب رد یتاعتطا EMBASE ا Google Scholar ا Scopus ي PubMed رد .داش شازاتاسا ي ییااساىش ٌداد لیلحت ي شازاتسا ٌدش فیزعت شيزخ ي ديري یاَرایعم ٍب ٍجًت اب دعب ٍلحزم آ یير زب اَ ترًاو ااُو .تفزگ :جیاتن داد ناشو اَ ٍتفای تیعمج ٍک ناُج ٍب تعزس لاح رد دىملاس ندش تسا شیپ ي یم یىیب سا دًش ديدح 5 / 10 لاس رد تیعمج % 2002 ديدح ٍب 8 / 22 لاس رد % 2050 داوير شایو نازایا رد .دبای شیاشفا رد ٍک تسا نآ سا یکاح یتیعمج تازییغت هیب ٌيزگ یاَ افلتام یىس هیزتاشیب زاو داشر ٍاب ًابزم شیپ .تسا نادىملاس یم یىیب لاس رد دًش 2050 ا 21 .دىَد لیکشت نادىملاس ار ناُج تیعمج % هجیتن :یزیگ افح رًشک رد دىملاس تیعمج نيشفا سير دشر ٍب ٍجًت اب دًابُب ي تیعاضي تمتاس ي

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several modifiable risk factors may be associated with falls that affect the health of older adults, and Appropriate interventions are necessary to reduce modifiablerisk factors of falls of high-risk elders.
Abstract: Falls are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Identifying potential risk factors would provide a considerable public health benefit. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the risk factors for falling among Iranian older adults. Two hundred eighty community-dwelling elders, with and without a history of falls, participated in the study. Elders aged 60 or over referred to retirement centres completed a multi-section questionnaire on demographic information, behavioural, environmental, and medical factors of fall from May to September 2018. Data analysis was performed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression using the Stata version 14 software. Sedentary activity level (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.85, 3.23), hearing loss (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.83), vertigo or dizziness (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.91) and visual impairment (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.67) were important predictors of falls. No significant associations were observed between falls with demographic factors and medication. This study indicates several modifiable risk factors may be associated with falls that affect the health of older adults. Appropriate interventions are necessary to reduce modifiable risk factors of falls of high-risk elders.

5 citations


Cites background or result from "Physical activity in Iranian older ..."

  • ...The findings of a study in Iran showed that the most participants had low levels of physical activity and this was about 50% lower than for elderly who had not fallen (Salehi et al., 2014)....

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  • ...This result supports previous evidence that physical activity level results in an increased risk for fall and, therefore, activating elderly people physical activity was the most promising prevention strategy (Jefferis et al., 2015; Salehi et al., 2014; Stahl & Albert, 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: HN was not a prevalent problem in older adults who met the inclusion criteria of this research and no significant difference has been observed between HN and bone mineral density and falls in the elderly.
Abstract: Background Hyponatremia (HN) can be associated with osteoporosis, falls and bone fractures in the elderly. Recent researches demonstrated different results about the correlation of HN with bone mineral density and bone fractures. Methods This analytic research came from the AHAP project in northern IRAN. All people aged 60 years and over were included in the study. Individuals with severe comorbidities and then who had concurrent conditions which could have impact on bone mineral densities (BMD) such as long-term use of steroids, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, thiazides and hormonal medications were excluded. Results One thousand and one hundred and thirteen older persons entered in the study. More than 10 percent of the participants had HN (serum Na+ level ≤ 137mEq/L). No significant difference has been observed between hyponatremic and nonhyponatremic individuals about their balance abilities; bone mineral density; incidence of falls and/or bone fracture during the previous 6 months; dependency in activities of daily living; and osteoporosis. Conclusion HN was not a prevalent problem in older adults who met the inclusion criteria of this research. No significant difference has been observed between HN and bone mineral density and falls in the elderly.

4 citations


Cites background from "Physical activity in Iranian older ..."

  • ...97) were evaluated in an Iranian study [19]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-modelling system that automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive and expensive process of manually cataloging and cataloging individual pieces of data.
Abstract: Article info: Received: 11 Aug 2019 Accepted: 02 Nov 2019 Available Online: 01 Dec 2019

2 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of 29 HBM-related investigations published during the period 1974-1984, tabulates the findings from 17 studies conducted prior to 1974, and provides a summary of the total 46 HBM studies.
Abstract: Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. This article presents a critical review of 29 HBM-related investigations published during the period of 1974-1984, tabulates the findings from 17 studies conducted prior to 1974, and provides a summary of the total 46 HBM studies (18 prospective, 28 retrospective). Twenty-four studies examined preventive-health behaviors (PHB), 19 explored sick-role behaviors (SRB), and three addressed clinic utilization. A "significance ratio" was constructed which divides the number of positive, statistically-significant findings for an HBM dimension by the total number of studies reporting significance levels for that dimension. Summary results provide substantial empirical support for the HBM, with findings from prospective studies at least as favorable as those obtained from retrospective research. "Perceived barriers" proved to be the most powerful of the HBM dimensions across the various study designs and behaviors. While both were important overall, "perceived susceptibility" was a stronger contributor to understanding PHB than SRB, while the reverse was true for "perceived benefits." "Perceived severity" produced the lowest overall significance ratios; however, while only weakly associated with PHB, this dimension was strongly related to SRB. On the basis of the evidence compiled, it is recommended that consideration of HBM dimensions be a part of health education programming. Suggestions are offered for further research.

6,880 citations


"Physical activity in Iranian older ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It is believed that this model is one of the most appropriate models that could explain and predict health-related behaviors [23]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The PASE is a brief, easily scored, reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of physical activity in epidemiologic studies of older people.
Abstract: A Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was evaluated in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults. Respondents were randomly assigned to complete the PASE by mail or telephone before or after a home visit assessment. Item weights for the PASE were derived by regressing a physical activity principal component score on responses to the PASE. The component score was based on 3-day motion sensor counts, a 3-day physical activity dairy and a global activity self-assessment. Test-retest reliability, assessed over a 3-7 week interval, was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.69-0.80). Reliability for mail administration (r = 0.84) was higher than for telephone administration (r = 0.68). Construct validity was established by correlating PASE scores with health status and physiologic measures. As hypothesized, PASE scores were positively associated with grip strength (r = 0.37), static balance (r = +0.33), leg strength (r = 0.25) and negatively correlated with resting heart rate (r = -0.13), age (r = -0.34) and perceived health status (r = -0.34); and overall Sickness Impact Profile score (r = -0.42). The PASE is a brief, easily scored, reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of physical activity in epidemiologic studies of older people.

2,433 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that about one-third of elderly people develop a fear of falling after an incident fall and this issue should be specifically addressed in any rehabilitation programme.
Abstract: Objectives To identify the characteristics of elderly persons who develop a fear of falling after experiencing a fall and to investigate the association of this fear with changes in health status over time. Design A prospective study of falls over a 2-year period (1991-92). Falls were ascertained using bimonthly postcards plus telephone interview with a standardized (World Health Organisation) questionnaire for circumstances, fear of falling and consequences of each reported fall. Each participant underwent a physical exam and subjective health assessment each year form 1990 to 1993. Setting New-Mexico Aging Process Study, USA. Subjects 487 elderly subjects (> 60 years) living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Fear of falling after experiencing a fall. Results 70 (32%) of 219 subjects who experienced a fall during the 2 year study period reported a fear of falling. Women were more likely than men to report fear of falling (74% vs 26%). Fallers who were afraid of falling again had significantly ore balance (31.9% vs 12.8%) and gait disorders (31.9% vs 7.4%) at entry in the study in 1990. Among sex, age, mental status, balance and gait abnormalities, economic resource and physical health, logistic regression analysis show gait abnormalities and poor self-perception of physical health, cognitive status and economic resources to be significantly associated with fear of falling. Subjects who reported a fear of falling experienced a greater increase in balance (P = 0.08), gait (P Conclusion The study indicated that about one-third of elderly people develop a fear of falling after an incident fall and this issue should be specifically addressed in any rehabilitation programme.

853 citations


"Physical activity in Iranian older ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Approximately 30% of older adults who have experienced a fall reported that they have a fear of falling [12] and the fear of falling was found to be high in elderly who had fallen during the previous year [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Motivational and cognitive processes of behavior change with respect to the area of exercise adoption were investigated. A total of 778 men and women, recruited from four worksites, answered a 40-item questionnaire consisting of statements based on constructs from the trans-theoretical model of behavior change. Principal-components analysis identified two factors--one a 6-item component representing avoidance of exercise (Cons), the other a 10-item component representing positive perceptions of exercise (Pros). Analysis of variance showed that the Pros, Cons, and a Decisional Balance measure (Pros minus Cons) were significantly associated with stage of exercise adoption. Results are consistent with applications of the model to smoking cessation and other areas of behavior change. Distinctions between exercise adoption and behaviors such as smoking cessation, weight loss, and alcoholism are discussed.

570 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Examination of barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults suggested strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.
Abstract: Introduction Increasing physical activity is a goal of Healthy People 2010. Although the health benefits of physical activity are documented, older adults are less physically active than any other age group. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults. Methods Seventy-one older adults were recruited through community agencies to participate in seven ethnic-specific focus groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Filipino, Chinese, Latino, Korean, and Vietnamese. Groups were conducted in the participants' primary language and ranged in size from 7-13 participants. Mean age was 71.6 years (range from 52 to 85 years; SD +/- 7.39). Professional translators transcribed audiotapes into the language of the group and then translated the transcript into English. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Results Suggested features of physical activity programs to enhance participation among ethnically diverse minority older adults included fostering relationships among participants; providing culture-specific exercise; offering programs at residential sites; partnering with and offering classes prior to or after social service programs; educating families about the importance of physical activity for older adults and ways they could help; offering low- or no-cost classes; and involving older adults in program development. Walking was the exercise of choice across all ethnic groups. Health served as both a motivator and a barrier to physical activity. Other factors influencing physical activity were weather, transportation, and personal safety. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.

351 citations


"Physical activity in Iranian older ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However although many researchers from Iran and other countries have explored the perceptions of older adults towards exercise and fitness [11,16,17], few studies aimed to explore perceptions of older adults who experienced falls [18]....

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