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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BJSPORTS-2020-103640

Physical inactivity and non-communicable disease burden in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries.

02 Mar 2021-British Journal of Sports Medicine (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine)-
Abstract: Objectives Physical inactivity is a risk factor for premature mortality and several non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate the global burden associated with physical inactivity, and to examine differences by country income and region. Methods Population-level, prevalence-based population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated for 168 countries to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We calculated PARs (percentage of cases attributable to inactivity) for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and non-communicable diseases including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dementia, depression and cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, endometrium, oesophagus, stomach and kidney. Results Globally, 7.2% and 7.6% of all-cause and cardiovascular disease deaths, respectively, are attributable to physical inactivity. The proportions of non-communicable diseases attributable to physical inactivity range from 1.6% for hypertension to 8.1% for dementia. There was an increasing gradient across income groups; PARs were more than double in high-income compared with low-income countries. However, 69% of total deaths and 74% of cardiovascular disease deaths associated with physical inactivity are occurring in middle-income countries, given their population size. Regional differences were also observed, with the PARs occurring in Latin America/Caribbean and high-income Western and Asia-Pacific countries, and the lowest burden occurring in Oceania and East/Southeast Asia. Conclusion The global burden associated with physical inactivity is substantial. The relative burden is greatest in high-income countries; however, the greatest number of people (absolute burden) affected by physical inactivity are living in middle-income countries given the size of their populations.

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Topics: Non-communicable disease (59%), Population (51%)

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BJSPORTS-2021-104080
Abstract: Objectives To compare hospitalisation rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality for patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive, doing some activity or consistently meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods We identified 48 440 adult patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis from 1 January 2020 to 21 October 2020, with at least three exercise vital sign measurements from 19 March 2018 to 18 March 2020. We linked each patient’s self-reported physical activity category (consistently inactive=0–10 min/week, some activity=11–149 min/week, consistently meeting guidelines=150+ min/week) to the risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission and death after COVID-19 diagnosis. We conducted multivariable logistic regression controlling for demographics and known risk factors to assess whether inactivity was associated with COVID-19 outcomes. Results Patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive had a greater risk of hospitalisation (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.83), admission to the ICU (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.55) and death (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.33 to 4.67) due to COVID-19 than patients who were consistently meeting physical activity guidelines. Patients who were consistently inactive also had a greater risk of hospitalisation (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.32), admission to the ICU (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.29) and death (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.60) due to COVID-19 than patients who were doing some physical activity. Conclusions Consistently meeting physical activity guidelines was strongly associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes among infected adults. We recommend efforts to promote physical activity be prioritised by public health agencies and incorporated into routine medical care.

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88 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0007114521003883
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common major neurocognitive disorder of ageing. Although largely ignored until about a decade ago, accumulating evidence suggests that deteriorating brain energy metabolism plays a key role in the development and/or progression of AD-associated cognitive decline. Brain glucose hypometabolism is a well-established biomarker in AD but was mostly assumed to be a consequence of neuronal dysfunction and death. However, its presence in cognitively asymptomatic populations at higher risk of AD strongly suggests that it is actually a pre-symptomatic component in the development of AD. The question then arises as to whether progressive AD-related cognitive decline could be prevented or slowed down by correcting or bypassing this progressive ‘brain energy gap’. In this review, we provide an overview of research on brain glucose and ketone metabolism in AD and its prodromal condition – mild cognitive impairment (MCI) – to provide a clearer basis for proposing keto-therapeutics as a strategy for brain energy rescue in AD. We also discuss studies using ketogenic interventions and their impact on plasma ketone levels, brain energetics and cognitive performance in MCI and AD. Given that exercise has several overlapping metabolic effects with ketones, we propose that in combination these two approaches might be synergistic for brain health during ageing. As cause-and-effect relationships between the different hallmarks of AD are emerging, further research efforts should focus on optimising the efficacy, acceptability and accessibility of keto-therapeutics in AD and populations at risk of AD.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (58%), Neurocognitive (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JOIM.13353
Marcel Ballin1, Peter Nordström1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Observational studies show that physical activity is strongly associated with reduced risk of premature mortality and major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We reviewed to which extent these associations have been confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the outcomes of mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and fracture. The results show that exercise does not reduce all-cause mortality and incident CVD in older adults or in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼50,000 participants. The results also indicate a lack of effect on cardiovascular mortality in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼11,000 participants. Furthermore, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the effect of exercise on fractures in older adults, based on RCTs comprising ∼40,000 participants. Finally, based on RCTs comprising ∼17,000 participants, exercise reduces T2D incidence in people with prediabetes when combined with dietary modification, although evidence for the individual effect of exercise is lacking. Identified shortcomings of the current evidence include risks of publication bias, lack of high-quality studies in certain high-risk populations, and inconstant evidence with respect to some outcomes. Thus, additional large trials would be of value, especially with fracture as primary outcome. In conclusion, according to current RCT evidence, exercise can prevent T2D assuming it is combined with a dietary intervention. However, the evidence show that exercise does not prevent premature mortality or CVD, with inconsistent evidence for fractures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Topics: Randomized controlled trial (55%), Publication bias (51%), Observational study (51%) ... show more

20 results found

Open access
01 Jan 2016-
Abstract: Information document of the Scoping meeting on collaboration between Regional Seas Programmes and Regional Fisheries Bodies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

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Topics: Sustainable development (61%)

10,594 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9
I-Min Lee1, Eric J. Shiroma2, Felipe Lobelo3, Pekka Puska4  +2 moreInstitutions (6)
21 Jul 2012-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the effect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level. Methods For our analysis of burden of disease, we calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity using conservative assumptions for each of the major non-communicable diseases, by country, to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We used life-table analysis to estimate gains in life expectancy of the population. Findings Worldwide, we estimate that physical inactivity causes 6% (ranging from 3·2% in southeast Asia to 7·8% in the eastern Mediterranean region) of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% (3·9–9·6) of type 2 diabetes, 10% (5·6–14·1) of breast cancer, and 10% (5·7–13·8) of colon cancer. Inactivity causes 9% (range 5·1–12·5) of premature mortality, or more than 5·3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008. If inactivity were not eliminated, but decreased instead by 10% or 25%, more than 533 000 and more than 1·3 million deaths, respectively, could be averted every year. We estimated that elimination of physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy of the world's population by 0·68 (range 0·41–0·95) years. Interpretation Physical inactivity has a major health effect worldwide. Decrease in or removal of this unhealthy behaviour could improve health substantially. Funding None.

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Topics: Life expectancy (53%), Population (53%)

5,099 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7
Abstract: Summary Background Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases, and has a negative effect on mental health and quality of life. We describe levels of insufficient physical activity across countries, and estimate global and regional trends. Methods We pooled data from population-based surveys reporting the prevalence of insufficient physical activity, which included physical activity at work, at home, for transport, and during leisure time (ie, not doing at least 150 min of moderate-intensity, or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, or any equivalent combination of the two). We used regression models to adjust survey data to a standard definition and age groups. We estimated time trends using multilevel mixed-effects modelling. Findings We included data from 358 surveys across 168 countries, including 1·9 million participants. Global age-standardised prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 27·5% (95% uncertainty interval 25·0–32·2) in 2016, with a difference between sexes of more than 8 percentage points (23·4%, 21·1–30·7, in men vs 31·7%, 28·6–39·0, in women). Between 2001, and 2016, levels of insufficient activity were stable (28·5%, 23·9–33·9, in 2001; change not significant). The highest levels in 2016, were in women in Latin America and the Caribbean (43·7%, 42·9–46·5), south Asia (43·0%, 29·6–74·9), and high-income Western countries (42·3%, 39·1–45·4), whereas the lowest levels were in men from Oceania (12·3%, 11·2–17·7), east and southeast Asia (17·6%, 15·7–23·9), and sub-Saharan Africa (17·9%, 15·1–20·5). Prevalence in 2016 was more than twice as high in high-income countries (36·8%, 35·0–38·0) as in low-income countries (16·2%, 14·2–17·9), and insufficient activity has increased in high-income countries over time (31·6%, 27·1–37·2, in 2001). Interpretation If current trends continue, the 2025 global physical activity target (a 10% relative reduction in insufficient physical activity) will not be met. Policies to increase population levels of physical activity need to be prioritised and scaled up urgently. Funding None.

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Topics: Population (53%)

1,261 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30383-X
Ding Ding1, Ding Ding2, Kenny D Lawson1, Kenny D Lawson2  +6 moreInstitutions (7)
24 Sep 2016-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Methods Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Findings Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. Interpretation In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is responsible for a substantial economic burden. This paper provides further justification to prioritise promotion of regular physical activity worldwide as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases. Funding None.

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Topics: Disease burden (59%), Population (53%), Indirect costs (51%)

1,007 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2015.0533
Hannah Arem, Steven C. Moore, Alpa V. Patel1, Patricia Hartge  +10 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Importance The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommended a minimum of 75 vigorous-intensity or 150 moderate-intensity minutes per week (7.5 metabolic-equivalent hours per week) of aerobic activity for substantial health benefit and suggested additional benefits by doing more than double this amount. However, the upper limit of longevity benefit or possible harm with more physical activity is unclear. Objective To quantify the dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and mortality and define the upper limit of benefit or harm associated with increased levels of physical activity. Design, Setting, and Participants We pooled data from 6 studies in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium (baseline 1992-2003). Population-based prospective cohorts in the United States and Europe with self-reported physical activity were analyzed in 2014. A total of 661 137 men and women (median age, 62 years; range, 21-98 years) and 116 686 deaths were included. We used Cox proportional hazards regression with cohort stratification to generate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Median follow-up time was 14.2 years. Exposures Leisure time moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Main Outcomes and Measures The upper limit of mortality benefit from high levels of leisure time physical activity. Results Compared with individuals reporting no leisure time physical activity, we observed a 20% lower mortality risk among those performing less than the recommended minimum of 7.5 metabolic-equivalent hours per week (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.78-0.82]), a 31% lower risk at 1 to 2 times the recommended minimum (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.67-0.70]), and a 37% lower risk at 2 to 3 times the minimum (HR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.62-0.65]). An upper threshold for mortality benefit occurred at 3 to 5 times the physical activity recommendation (HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.59-0.62]); however, compared with the recommended minimum, the additional benefit was modest (31% vs 39%). There was no evidence of harm at 10 or more times the recommended minimum (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.59-0.78]). A similar dose-response relationship was observed for mortality due to cardiovascular disease and to cancer. Conclusions and Relevance Meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans minimum by either moderate- or vigorous-intensity activities was associated with nearly the maximum longevity benefit. We observed a benefit threshold at approximately 3 to 5 times the recommended leisure time physical activity minimum and no excess risk at 10 or more times the minimum. In regard to mortality, health care professionals should encourage inactive adults to perform leisure time physical activity and do not need to discourage adults who already participate in high-activity levels.

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Topics: Population (51%), Physical fitness (51%), Absolute risk reduction (51%) ... show more

886 Citations

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