scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Physiological correlates of the perceptual pitch shift for sounds with similar waveform autocorrelation

01 Jan 2004-Acoustics Research Letters Online-arlo (Acoustical Society of America)-Vol. 5, Iss: 1, pp 1-6

TL;DR: A perceptual experiment shows that random click trains with a uniform interclick distribution can be reliably pitch-matched to pseudo-periodic click trains and similar cues are found in either first-order or all-order interspike interval statistics.

AbstractA perceptual experiment shows that random click trains with a uniform interclick distribution can be reliably pitch-matched to pseudo-periodic click trains. The pitch matches cannot be explained on the basis of mean rate, power spectrum, or autocorrelation of the waveform. The matches are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, consistent with the most common interspike interval present in responses of single units from the ventral cochlear nucleus of anaesthetised guinea pigs. The physiological recordings also demonstrate that at the level of the cochlear nucleus, similar cues are found in either first-order or all-order interspike interval statistics.

Topics: Pitch shift (55%), Cochlear nucleus (53%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Book ChapterDOI
Alain de Cheveigné1
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: This chapter discusses models of pitch, old and recent, to chart their common points – many are variations on a theme – and differences, and build a catalog of ideas for use in understanding pitch perception.
Abstract: This chapter discusses models of pitch, old and recent. The aim is to chart their common points – many are variations on a theme – and differences, and build a catalog of ideas for use in understanding pitch perception. The busy reader might read just the next section, a crash course in pitch theory that explains why some obvious ideas don’t work and what are currently the best answers. The brave reader will read on as we delve more deeply into the origin of concepts, and the intricate and ingenious ideas behind the models and metaphors that we use to make progress in understanding pitch.

219 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study presents an idealized neurocomputational model, which provides a unified account of the multiple time scales observed in pitch perception and suggests a key role for efferent connections from central to sub-cortical areas in controlling the temporal dynamics of pitch processing.
Abstract: Pitch is one of the most important features of natural sounds, underlying the perception of melody in music and prosody in speech. However, the temporal dynamics of pitch processing are still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that the auditory system uses a wide range of time scales to integrate pitch-related information and that the effective integration time is both task- and stimulus-dependent. None of the existing models of pitch processing can account for such task- and stimulus-dependent variations in processing time scales. This study presents an idealized neurocomputational model, which provides a unified account of the multiple time scales observed in pitch perception. The model is evaluated using a range of perceptual studies, which have not previously been accounted for by a single model, and new results from a neurophysiological experiment. In contrast to other approaches, the current model contains a hierarchy of integration stages and uses feedback to adapt the effective time scales of processing at each stage in response to changes in the input stimulus. The model has features in common with a hierarchical generative process and suggests a key role for efferent connections from central to sub-cortical areas in controlling the temporal dynamics of pitch processing.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mechanism by which delays may be synthesized from cross-channel phase interaction is proposed by which Phases of adjacent cochlear filter channels are shifted by an amount proportional to frequency and then combined as a weighted sum to approximate a delay.
Abstract: Temporal models of pitch and harmonic segregation call for delays of up to 30ms to cover the full range of existence of musical pitch. To date there is little anatomical or physiological evidence for delays that long. We propose a mechanism by which delays may be synthesized from cross-channel phase interaction. Phases of adjacent cochlear filter channels are shifted by an amount proportional to frequency and then combined as a weighted sum to approximate a delay. Synthetic delays may be used by pitch perception models such as autocorrelation, segregation models such as harmonic cancellation, and binaural processing models to explain sensitivity to large interaural delays. The maximum duration of synthetic delays is limited by the duration of the impulse responses of cochlear filters, itself inversely proportional to cochlear filter bandwidth. Maximum delay is thus frequency dependent. This may explain the fact, puzzling for temporal pitch models such as autocorrelation, that pitch is more salient and eas...

42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009
Abstract: This article is a review of the psychophysical study of pitch perception. The history of the study of pitch has seen a continual competition between spectral and temporal theories of pitch perception. The pitch of complex stimuli is likely based on the temporal regularities in a sound’s waveform, with the strongest pitches occurring for stimuli with low-frequency components. Thus, temporal models, especially those based on autocorrelationlike processes, appear to account for the majority of the data.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that human perception of stimuli can be determined exclusively by temporal features of spike trains independent of the mean spike rate and without contribution from population response factors.
Abstract: Skin vibrations sensed by tactile receptors contribute significantly to the perception of object properties during tactile exploration [1-4] and to sensorimotor control during object manipulation [5]. Sustained low-frequency skin vibration (<60 Hz) evokes a distinct tactile sensation referred to as flutter whose frequency can be clearly perceived [6]. How afferent spiking activity translates into the perception of frequency is still unknown. Measures based on mean spike rates of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex are sufficient to explain performance in some frequency discrimination tasks [7-11]; however, there is emerging evidence that stimuli can be distinguished based also on temporal features of neural activity [12, 13]. Our study's advance is to demonstrate that temporal features are fundamental for vibrotactile frequency perception. Pulsatile mechanical stimuli were used to elicit specified temporal spike train patterns in tactile afferents, and subsequently psychophysical methods were employed to characterize human frequency perception. Remarkably, the most salient temporal feature determining vibrotactile frequency was not the underlying periodicity but, rather, the duration of the silent gap between successive bursts of neural activity. This burst gap code for frequency represents a previously unknown form of neural coding in the tactile sensory system, which parallels auditory pitch perception mechanisms based on purely temporal information where longer inter-pulse intervals receive higher perceptual weights than short intervals [14]. Our study also demonstrates that human perception of stimuli can be determined exclusively by temporal features of spike trains independent of the mean spike rate and without contribution from population response factors.

30 citations


Cites background from "Physiological correlates of the per..."

  • ...Indeed, the phenomenon that inter-spike intervals of longer duration receive higher weights than short ones has been previously documented in the auditory system [14, 28]....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modifications to the fitting procedure are described which allow more accurate derivations of filter shapes derived from data where the notch is always placed symmetrically about the signal frequency and when the underlying filter is markedly asymmetric.
Abstract: A well established method for estimating the shape of the auditory filter is based on the measurement of the threshold of a sinusoidal signal in a notched-noise masker, as a function of notch width. To measure the asymmetry of the filter, the notch has to be placed both symmetrically and asymmetrically about the signal frequency. In previous work several simplifying assumptions and approximations were made in deriving auditory filter shapes from the data. In this paper we describe modifications to the fitting procedure which allow more accurate derivations. These include: 1) taking into account changes in filter bandwidth with centre frequency when allowing for the effects of off-frequency listening; 2) correcting for the non-flat frequency response of the earphone; 3) correcting for the transmission characteristics of the outer and middle ear; 4) limiting the amount by which the centre frequency of the filter can shift in order to maximise the signal-to-masker ratio. In many cases, these modifications result in only small changes to the derived filter shape. However, at very high and very low centre frequencies and for hearing-impaired subjects the differences can be substantial. It is also shown that filter shapes derived from data where the notch is always placed symmetrically about the signal frequency can be seriously in error when the underlying filter is markedly asymmetric. New formulae are suggested describing the variation of the auditory filter with frequency and level. The implications of the results for the calculation of excitation patterns are discussed and a modified procedure is proposed. The appendix lists FORTRAN computer programs for deriving auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data and for calculating excitation patterns. The first program can readily be modified so as to derive auditory filter shapes from data obtained with other types of maskers, such as rippled noise.

2,317 citations


Book
01 Jun 1954
Abstract: Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–94) was a leading scientist who made important contributions to physiology, psychology, physics, philosophy and early neuroscience. Following his foundational work in ophthalmics during the 1850s, he became Professor of Physiology at Heidelberg and, in 1863, published On the Sensations of Tone. This investigation into the physical theory of music remains a central text for the study of physiological acoustics and aesthetics. In it, Helmholtz applies physics, anatomy and physiology. He explains how tones are built from a base tone with upper partial tones, and his later discussions on consonance and musical scales develop this theory and discuss how the ear perceives these tones. His work on consonance and dissonance was of particular interest to composers and musicologists well into the twentieth century. This English translation, published in 1875 from the third German edition, retains the original's straightforward language, making this classic work accessible to non-specialists.

866 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Licklider (1951) proposed autocorrelation as a way to detect all types of regularities present in neural spike trains....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A theory was formulated for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones, i.e., periodicity pitch, which is a logical deduction from statistical estimation theory of the optimal estimate for fundamental frequency.
Abstract: A comprehensive theory is formulated for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones, i.e., periodicity pitch [Schouten, Ritsma, and Cardozo, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 1418–1424 (1962)]. This theory is a logical deduction from statistical estimation theory of the optimal estimate for fundamental frequency, when this estimate is constrained in ways inferred from empirical phenomena. The basic constraints are (i) the estimator receives noisy information on the frequencies, but not amplitudes and phases, of aurally resolvable simple tones from the stimulus and its aural combination tones, and (ii) the estimator presumes all stimuli are periodic with spectra comprising successive harmonics. The stochastic signals representing the frequencies of resolved tones are characterized by independent Gaussian distributions with mean equal to the frequency represented and a variance that serves as free parameter. The theory is applicable whether frequency is coded by place or time. Optimum estimates of fundamental frequency and harmonic numbers are calculated upon each stimulus presentation. Multimodal probability distributions for the estimated fundamental are predicted in consequence of variability in the estimated harmonic numbers. Quantification of the variance parameter from musical intelligibility data in Houtsma and Goldstein [J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 51, 520–529 (1972)] shows it to be dependent upon the frequency represented and not upon other stimulus frequencies. The quantified optimum processor theory consolidates known data on pitch of complex tones.

539 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, the validity of the autocorrelation model has been questioned in several studies....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Of the two methods, one--frequency analysis performed by an array of band-pass filters--has been incorporated into auditory theory, and the possibility that the other method, autocorrelationaI analysis, plays a role in the auditory process has been neglected.
Abstract: In the theories of pitch perception now widely supported, pitch is regarded as a unitary attribute of auditory experience. There is good evidence, however, that there are actually two pitch‐like attributes, and it is reasonable to suppose that the duplexity of pitch is a reflection of duplexity in the auditory process. The first step in the process is analysis in frequency, performed by the cochlea, which distributes stimulus components of various frequencies to spatially separated channels. The second step, according to the scheme postulated here, is autocorrelational analysis, performed by the neural part of the auditory system, of the signal in each frequency channel. The basic operations of autocorrelational analysis are delay, multiplication, and integration. The nervous system is nicely set up to perform these operations. A chain of neurons makes an excellent delay line. The spatial aspect of synaptic summation provides something very close to multiplication. And the temporal aspect of synaptic summation is essentially running integration. The duplex theory suggests, therefore, that neural circuits following the autocorrelation model supplement the cochlear frequency analysis. The postulated neural autocorrelator of course does not compute autocorrelation functions of the acoustic stimulus: it operates upon afferent neural signals. Because the markedly non‐linear process of neural excitation intervenes between the stimulus and the autocorrelation, the latter gives rise in certain instances to pitches that are not readily explained if the relatively linear cochlear analysis is considered to be the only one. “The case of the missing fundamental” and Schouten's residue effect, for example, are readily accounted for by the duplex theory. In addition, the theory provides a rational basis for the octave relation and for the consonance of other simple harmonic relations.

526 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the model can simulate new experimental results that show how the quality of the pitch percept is influenced by the resolvability of the harmonic components of the stimulus complex and it is not necessary to postulate two separate mechanisms to explain different pitch percepts associated with resolved and unresolved harmonics.
Abstract: A model of the mechanism of residue pitch perception is revisited. It is evaluated in the context of some new empirical results, and it is proposed that the model is able to reconcile a number of differing approaches in the history of theories of pitch perception. The model consists of four sequential processing stages: peripheral frequency selectivity, within-channel half-wave rectification and low-pass filtering, within-channel periodicity extraction, and cross-channel aggregation of the output. The pitch percept is represented by the aggregated periodicity function. Using autocorrelation as the periodicity extraction method and the summary autocorrelation function (SACF) as the method for representing pitch information, it is shown that the model can simulate new experimental results that show how the quality of the pitch percept is influenced by the resolvability of the harmonic components of the stimulus complex. These include: (i) the pitch of harmonic stimuli whose components alternate in phase; (ii) the increased frequency difference limen of tones consisting of higher harmonics; and (iii) the influence of a mistuned harmonic on the pitch of the complex as a function of its harmonic number. To accommodate these paradigms, it was necessary to compare stimuli along the length of the SACF rather than relying upon the highest peak alone. These new results demonstrate that the model responds differently to complexes consisting of low and high harmonics. As a consequence, it is not necessary to postulate two separate mechanisms to explain different pitch percepts associated with resolved and unresolved harmonics.

418 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A simple distance measure between histograms (Meddis and O’Mard, 1997) would lead to a prediction more in line with the magnitude of the effect....

    [...]