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Journal ArticleDOI

Physiological correlates of the perceptual pitch shift for sounds with similar waveform autocorrelation

01 Jan 2004-Acoustics Research Letters Online-arlo (Acoustical Society of America)-Vol. 5, Iss: 1, pp 1-6
TL;DR: A perceptual experiment shows that random click trains with a uniform interclick distribution can be reliably pitch-matched to pseudo-periodic click trains and similar cues are found in either first-order or all-order interspike interval statistics.
Abstract: A perceptual experiment shows that random click trains with a uniform interclick distribution can be reliably pitch-matched to pseudo-periodic click trains. The pitch matches cannot be explained on the basis of mean rate, power spectrum, or autocorrelation of the waveform. The matches are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, consistent with the most common interspike interval present in responses of single units from the ventral cochlear nucleus of anaesthetised guinea pigs. The physiological recordings also demonstrate that at the level of the cochlear nucleus, similar cues are found in either first-order or all-order interspike interval statistics.

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Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
Alain de Cheveigné1
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: This chapter discusses models of pitch, old and recent, to chart their common points – many are variations on a theme – and differences, and build a catalog of ideas for use in understanding pitch perception.
Abstract: This chapter discusses models of pitch, old and recent. The aim is to chart their common points – many are variations on a theme – and differences, and build a catalog of ideas for use in understanding pitch perception. The busy reader might read just the next section, a crash course in pitch theory that explains why some obvious ideas don’t work and what are currently the best answers. The brave reader will read on as we delve more deeply into the origin of concepts, and the intricate and ingenious ideas behind the models and metaphors that we use to make progress in understanding pitch.

229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study presents an idealized neurocomputational model, which provides a unified account of the multiple time scales observed in pitch perception and suggests a key role for efferent connections from central to sub-cortical areas in controlling the temporal dynamics of pitch processing.
Abstract: Pitch is one of the most important features of natural sounds, underlying the perception of melody in music and prosody in speech. However, the temporal dynamics of pitch processing are still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that the auditory system uses a wide range of time scales to integrate pitch-related information and that the effective integration time is both task- and stimulus-dependent. None of the existing models of pitch processing can account for such task- and stimulus-dependent variations in processing time scales. This study presents an idealized neurocomputational model, which provides a unified account of the multiple time scales observed in pitch perception. The model is evaluated using a range of perceptual studies, which have not previously been accounted for by a single model, and new results from a neurophysiological experiment. In contrast to other approaches, the current model contains a hierarchy of integration stages and uses feedback to adapt the effective time scales of processing at each stage in response to changes in the input stimulus. The model has features in common with a hierarchical generative process and suggests a key role for efferent connections from central to sub-cortical areas in controlling the temporal dynamics of pitch processing.

56 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mechanism by which delays may be synthesized from cross-channel phase interaction is proposed by which Phases of adjacent cochlear filter channels are shifted by an amount proportional to frequency and then combined as a weighted sum to approximate a delay.
Abstract: Temporal models of pitch and harmonic segregation call for delays of up to 30ms to cover the full range of existence of musical pitch. To date there is little anatomical or physiological evidence for delays that long. We propose a mechanism by which delays may be synthesized from cross-channel phase interaction. Phases of adjacent cochlear filter channels are shifted by an amount proportional to frequency and then combined as a weighted sum to approximate a delay. Synthetic delays may be used by pitch perception models such as autocorrelation, segregation models such as harmonic cancellation, and binaural processing models to explain sensitivity to large interaural delays. The maximum duration of synthetic delays is limited by the duration of the impulse responses of cochlear filters, itself inversely proportional to cochlear filter bandwidth. Maximum delay is thus frequency dependent. This may explain the fact, puzzling for temporal pitch models such as autocorrelation, that pitch is more salient and eas...

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009
TL;DR: A review of the psychophysical study of pitch perception can be found in this article, where the authors show that the pitch of complex stimuli is likely based on the temporal regularities in a sound's waveform, with the strongest pitches occurring for stimuli with low-frequency components.
Abstract: This article is a review of the psychophysical study of pitch perception. The history of the study of pitch has seen a continual competition between spectral and temporal theories of pitch perception. The pitch of complex stimuli is likely based on the temporal regularities in a sound’s waveform, with the strongest pitches occurring for stimuli with low-frequency components. Thus, temporal models, especially those based on autocorrelationlike processes, appear to account for the majority of the data.

42 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that human perception of stimuli can be determined exclusively by temporal features of spike trains independent of the mean spike rate and without contribution from population response factors.

38 citations


Cites background from "Physiological correlates of the per..."

  • ...Indeed, the phenomenon that inter-spike intervals of longer duration receive higher weights than short ones has been previously documented in the auditory system [14, 28]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modifications to the fitting procedure are described which allow more accurate derivations of filter shapes derived from data where the notch is always placed symmetrically about the signal frequency and when the underlying filter is markedly asymmetric.

2,456 citations

Book
01 Jun 1954
TL;DR: On the Sensations of Tone as mentioned in this paper is a classic text for the study of physiological acoustics and aesthetics and has been translated into English in 1875 from the third German edition, making it accessible to nonspecialists.
Abstract: Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–94) was a leading scientist who made important contributions to physiology, psychology, physics, philosophy and early neuroscience. Following his foundational work in ophthalmics during the 1850s, he became Professor of Physiology at Heidelberg and, in 1863, published On the Sensations of Tone. This investigation into the physical theory of music remains a central text for the study of physiological acoustics and aesthetics. In it, Helmholtz applies physics, anatomy and physiology. He explains how tones are built from a base tone with upper partial tones, and his later discussions on consonance and musical scales develop this theory and discuss how the ear perceives these tones. His work on consonance and dissonance was of particular interest to composers and musicologists well into the twentieth century. This English translation, published in 1875 from the third German edition, retains the original's straightforward language, making this classic work accessible to non-specialists.

867 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Licklider (1951) proposed autocorrelation as a way to detect all types of regularities present in neural spike trains....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A theory was formulated for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones, i.e., periodicity pitch, which is a logical deduction from statistical estimation theory of the optimal estimate for fundamental frequency.
Abstract: A comprehensive theory is formulated for the central formation of the pitch of complex tones, i.e., periodicity pitch [Schouten, Ritsma, and Cardozo, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 34, 1418–1424 (1962)]. This theory is a logical deduction from statistical estimation theory of the optimal estimate for fundamental frequency, when this estimate is constrained in ways inferred from empirical phenomena. The basic constraints are (i) the estimator receives noisy information on the frequencies, but not amplitudes and phases, of aurally resolvable simple tones from the stimulus and its aural combination tones, and (ii) the estimator presumes all stimuli are periodic with spectra comprising successive harmonics. The stochastic signals representing the frequencies of resolved tones are characterized by independent Gaussian distributions with mean equal to the frequency represented and a variance that serves as free parameter. The theory is applicable whether frequency is coded by place or time. Optimum estimates of fundamental frequency and harmonic numbers are calculated upon each stimulus presentation. Multimodal probability distributions for the estimated fundamental are predicted in consequence of variability in the estimated harmonic numbers. Quantification of the variance parameter from musical intelligibility data in Houtsma and Goldstein [J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 51, 520–529 (1972)] shows it to be dependent upon the frequency represented and not upon other stimulus frequencies. The quantified optimum processor theory consolidates known data on pitch of complex tones.

542 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, the validity of the autocorrelation model has been questioned in several studies....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Of the two methods, one--frequency analysis performed by an array of band-pass filters--has been incorporated into auditory theory, and the possibility that the other method, autocorrelationaI analysis, plays a role in the auditory process has been neglected.
Abstract: In the theories of pitch perception now widely supported, pitch is regarded as a unitary attribute of auditory experience. There is good evidence, however, that there are actually two pitch‐like attributes, and it is reasonable to suppose that the duplexity of pitch is a reflection of duplexity in the auditory process. The first step in the process is analysis in frequency, performed by the cochlea, which distributes stimulus components of various frequencies to spatially separated channels. The second step, according to the scheme postulated here, is autocorrelational analysis, performed by the neural part of the auditory system, of the signal in each frequency channel. The basic operations of autocorrelational analysis are delay, multiplication, and integration. The nervous system is nicely set up to perform these operations. A chain of neurons makes an excellent delay line. The spatial aspect of synaptic summation provides something very close to multiplication. And the temporal aspect of synaptic summation is essentially running integration. The duplex theory suggests, therefore, that neural circuits following the autocorrelation model supplement the cochlear frequency analysis. The postulated neural autocorrelator of course does not compute autocorrelation functions of the acoustic stimulus: it operates upon afferent neural signals. Because the markedly non‐linear process of neural excitation intervenes between the stimulus and the autocorrelation, the latter gives rise in certain instances to pitches that are not readily explained if the relatively linear cochlear analysis is considered to be the only one. “The case of the missing fundamental” and Schouten's residue effect, for example, are readily accounted for by the duplex theory. In addition, the theory provides a rational basis for the octave relation and for the consonance of other simple harmonic relations.

541 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The temporal discharge patterns of auditory nerve fibers in Dial-anesthetized cats were studied in response to periodic complex acoustic waveforms that evoke pitches at their fundamental frequencies, suggesting that existence of a central processor capable of analyzing these interval patterns could provide a unified explanation for many different aspects of pitch perception.
Abstract: 1. The temporal discharge patterns of auditory nerve fibers in Dial-anesthetized cats were studied in response to periodic complex acoustic waveforms that evoke pitches at their fundamental frequencies. Single-formant vowels, amplitude-modulated (AM) and quasi-frequency-modulated tones. AM noise, click trains, and other complex tones were utilized. Distributions of intervals between successive spikes ("1st-order intervals") and between both successive and nonsuccessive spikes ("all-order intervals") were computed from spike trains. Intervals from many fibers were pooled to estimate interspike interval distributions for the entire auditory nerve. Properties of these "pooled interspike interval distributions," such as the positions of interval peaks and their relative heights, were examined for correspondence to the psychophysical data on pitch frequency and pitch salience. 2. For a diverse set of complex stimuli and levels, the most frequent all-order interspike interval present in the pooled distribution corresponded to the pitch heard in psychophysical experiments. Pitch estimates based on pooled interval distributions (30-85 fibers, 100 stimulus presentations per fiber) were highly accurate (within 1%) for harmonic stimuli that produce strong pitches at 60 dB SPL. 3. Although the most frequent intervals in pooled all-order interval distributions were very stable with respect to sound intensity level (40, 60, and 80 dB total SPL), this was not necessarily the case for first-order interval distributions. Because the low pitches of complex tones are largely invariant with respect to level, pitches estimated from all-order interval distributions correspond better to perception. 4. Spectrally diverse stimuli that evoke similar low pitches produce pooled interval distributions with similar most-frequent intervals. This suggests that the pitch equivalence of these different stimuli could result from central auditory processing mechanisms that analyze interspike interval patterns. 5. Complex stimuli that evoke strong or "salient" pitches produce pooled interval distributions with high peak-to-mean ratios. Those stimuli that evoke weak pitches produce pooled interval distributions with low peak-to-mean ratios. 6. Pooled interspike interval distributions for stimuli consisting of low-frequency components generally resembled the short-time auto-correlation function of stimulus waveforms. Pooled interval distributions for stimuli consisting of high-frequency components resembled the short-time autocorrelation function of the waveform envelope. 7. Interval distributions in populations of neurons constitute a general, distributed means of encoding, transmitting, and representing information. Existence of a central processor capable of analyzing these interval patterns could provide a unified explanation for many different aspects of pitch perception.

437 citations


"Physiological correlates of the per..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The peak in autocorrelations of auditory nerve spike trains was found to produce correct pitch estimates for a wide range of stimuli (Cariani and Delgutte, 1996)....

    [...]