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Journal Article

Pierre-Michel Menger, Le travail créateur. S’accomplir dans l’incertain. Paris, Gallimard-Seuil, « Hautes études », 2009

08 Apr 2010-Sociologie (PUF)-
TL;DR: Menger as discussed by the authors proposed a synthese de l'œuvre de l’auteur en reunissant des articles and des chapitres publies sur des supports varies de 1989 a 2009.
Abstract: L’ouvrage de Pierre-Michel Menger, Le travail createur, propose bien une synthese de l’œuvre de l’auteur en reunissant des articles et des chapitres publies sur des supports varies de 1989 a 2009. Cette reedition – accompagnee d’un chapitre de plus de cent vingt pages entierement nouveau – n’a rien de superflu puisqu’elle donne en un seul tome un apercu saisissant tant de la coherence et de la diversite du travail de l’auteur. On passe ainsi d’un texte a l’autre de l’exploration des grands pa...
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TL;DR: Is It Really (Just) the Economy? Color is one of the most underdiscussed and undertheorized features of comics and graphic novel scholarship as mentioned in this paper and it is not much to say about the use of color in comics.
Abstract: Is It Really (Just) the Economy?Color is undoubtedly one of the most underdiscussed and undertheorized features of comics and graphic novel scholarship. It is both everywhere (most case studies of comic books and graphic novels mention color and make room to discuss its use) and nowhere (as far as I know, a global theory of color in the comics field is still missing).1At first sight, the simplest reason to explain this (relative) absence of color in comics criticism is economical, in the very classic sense of the term. Since it is - and remains, despite all technological innovations - more expensive to print in color, it is the lack of money that that forces authors, editors, and publishers to limit their production to black and white (often even deprived of the many shades of grey that are between them!), whereas the availability of larger production budgets not only allows artists to work in color but forces them to do so. Art or non-art is not a relevant criterion in this regard, and therefore there is not much to say about the use of color.This reason, however, is not very satisfying. First of all because it tends to put between brackets those cases - Marjane Satrapi's Persepolis (2007) being an illustrious example of it - in which black and white is chosen for other reasons than just cost-effectiveness: particular artistic choices regarding form, Une, and color (of course!) play here an eminent role, and too strong an emphasis on financial aspects would miss the point of this kind of work. But even if one does not reduce the discussion to matters of cost-effectiveness, it is always dangerous to forget about economical considerations when discussing popular culture, whose basic domain is less art in the old-fashioned sense of the word than the culture industries, where the cultural aspects of the production are inevitably intertwined with industrial and commercial aspects.2 In that sense, the more economical a criterion is, the more important is should be for cultural critics, as has been argued by some scholars who are resisting the (ideological) split between mass-cultural comics and highcultural graphic novels (Hatfield 2005, 162). Moreover, one should be aware of the generalizations that are involved in the opposition between small and large budget productions, for it often occurs that artists, even if they are encouraged to work in color, do continue to prefer the apparently low-scale black and white.The reasons why color remains such a neglected item in our approach of comics are manifold. I think that, very generally speaking, it is possible to suggest two main types of obstacles that prevent us - readers, critics, theoreticians - from fully acknowledging its importance.The first group of obstacles may be labelled ideological, and they have to do with the sociological notion of "distinction" (Bourdieu 1984) as well as with the art-historical notion of "auteur" (Truffaut 1976). Comic books tend to be in color (even if there have been and still are many comic books in black and white, the global cultural perception is that of color, as clearly expressed by the name of many popular comic characters, from the Yellow Kid to the Green Lantern, or, more importantly, by the dramatic importance of color in the representation of characters such as the red, yellow and blue Superman), whereas graphic novels, the more "distinguished" form of comic art, tend to be in black in white (and here again, even if there are many examples of the contrary, such as Chris Ware's Jimmy Corrigan (2000), we "spontaneously" associate the graphic novel with black and white books such as Spiegelman's Maus (1991), Satrapi's Persepolis (2007) or the many works by Robert Crumb). This culturally constructed opposition between comic books and graphic novels makes critics to a certain extent "color-blind": so strong is the alleged difference between "bad" comic books in color and "good" graphic novels, that further reflection on color does no longer seems necessary. …

53 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study of actors' efforts to maintain the institution of intellectual property rights in the French music industry from 2004 to 2008 was conducted, where they interviewed 26 actors and compiled a base of secondary data over an extended period of time.

41 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2013-Poetics
TL;DR: This paper used contemporary Francophone poetry to see how positions are distributed at the pure pole of the literary field and showed that careers at the poetry pure pole are long, progressively cumulative and irregular.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2016-Poetics
TL;DR: In this article, a specific use of the concept of symbolic capital that allows a better understanding of social mechanisms of value production is presented. And the analysis of qualitative data discloses the various resources and strategies intermediaries use to acquire symbolic capital.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Barcelona's candidature as the UNESCO City of Literature in 2015 reveals an attempt to combine international promotion, development of local cultural industries, citizen cultural engagement, and the image of local literature as a sign of identity as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Since the 1980s, cultural policies have been increasingly oriented to promoting cities. However, under the paradigm of the creative city, this approach had presented several dilemmas and contradictions. Since then, there have been various attempts to tackle such issues through a more systematic approach to cultural policy — what we identify as cultural governance oriented to cultural generation. Barcelona is a paradigmatic case illustrating this trend. The city's candidature as UNESCO City of Literature in 2015 reveals an attempt to combine international promotion, development of local cultural industries, citizen cultural engagement. Moreover, this project emerges as an attempt to capitalize on the local literary heritage and on the image of local literature as a sign of identity. Finally, we highlight some limits and contradictions arising from the approach adopted by Barcelona.

20 citations