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Journal ArticleDOI

“Ping-Pong” Interactions between Mitochondrial tRNA Import Receptors within a Multiprotein Complex

01 Aug 2003-Molecular and Cellular Biology (American Society for Microbiology)-Vol. 23, Iss: 15, pp 5217-5224

TL;DR: By a combination of antibody inhibition, photochemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, it was shown that binding of tRNAIle to a 21-kDa component of the complex is dependent upon tRNATyr, whilebinding of tR NATyr to a 45-KDa component is inhibited by t RNAIle, suggesting this “ping-pong” mechanism may be an effective means to maintain a balanced tRNA pool for mitochondrial translation.

AbstractThe mitochondrial genomes of a wide variety of species contain an insufficient number of functional tRNA genes, and translation of mitochondrial mRNAs is sustained by import of nucleus-encoded tRNAs. In Leishmania, transfer of tRNAs across the inner membrane can be regulated by positive and negative interactions between them. To define the factors involved in such interactions, a large multisubunit complex (molecular mass, approximately 640 kDa) from the inner mitochondrial membrane of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania, consisting of approximately 130-A particles, was isolated. The complex, when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles, induced specific, ATP- and proton motive force-dependent transfer of Leishmania tRNA(Tyr) as well as of oligoribonucleotides containing the import signal YGGYAGAGC. Moreover, allosteric interactions between tRNA(Tyr) and tRNA(Ile) were observed in the RNA import complex-reconstituted system, indicating the presence of primary and secondary tRNA binding sites within the complex. By a combination of antibody inhibition, photochemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, it was shown that binding of tRNA(Ile) to a 21-kDa component of the complex is dependent upon tRNA(Tyr), while binding of tRNA(Tyr) to a 45-kDa component is inhibited by tRNA(Ile). This "ping-pong" mechanism may be an effective means to maintain a balanced tRNA pool for mitochondrial translation.

Topics: TRNA binding (76%), Mitochondrial translation (57%), Translation (biology) (57%), Transfer RNA (57%), Mitochondrial carrier (56%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These findings prove for the first time the functionality of imported tRNAs in human mitochondria in vivo and highlight the potential for exploiting the RNA import pathway to treat patients with mtDNA diseases.
Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are an important cause of human disease for which there is no efficient treatment. Our aim was to determine whether the A8344G mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) mutation, which can cause the MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers) syndrome, could be complemented by targeting tRNAs into mitochondria from the cytosol. Import of small RNAs into mitochondria has been demonstrated in many organisms, including protozoans, plants, fungi and animals. Although human mitochondria do not import tRNAs in vivo, we previously demonstrated that some yeast tRNA derivatives can be imported into isolated human mitochondria. We show here that yeast tRNALys derivatives expressed in immortalized human cells and in primary human fibroblasts are partially imported into mitochondria. Imported tRNAs are correctly aminoacylated and are able to participate in mitochondrial translation. In transmitochondrial cybrid cells and in patient-derived fibroblasts bearing the MERRF mutation, import of tRNALys is accompanied by a partial rescue of mitochondrial functions affected by the mutation such as mitochondrial translation, activity of respiratory complexes, electrochemical potential across the mitochondrial membrane and respiration rate. Import of a tRNALys with a mutation in the anticodon preventing recognition of the lysine codons does not lead to any rescue, whereas downregulation of the transgenic tRNAs by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transiently abolishes the functional rescue, showing that this rescue is due to the import. These findings prove for the first time the functionality of imported tRNAs in human mitochondria in vivo and highlight the potential for exploiting the RNA import pathway to treat patients with mtDNA diseases.

143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The characterization of both direct and co-import mechanisms involving distinct protein-import factors is in agreement with a polyphyletic origin of tRNA import.
Abstract: In many eukaryotes, tRNA import from the cytosol into mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and, consequently, for cell viability. Recent work has begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in tRNA transport in yeast, trypanosomatids and plants. The mechanisms of tRNA targeting to, and translocation through, the double mitochondrial membrane in addition to how selectivity and regulation of these processes are achieved are the main questions that have been addressed. The characterization of both direct and co-import mechanisms involving distinct protein-import factors is in agreement with a polyphyletic origin of tRNA import. Moreover, our increased understanding of the tRNA-import pathway has been exploited recently to rescue dysfunctions associated with mitochondrial tRNA mutations.

119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: All mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and many tRNAs are imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells and their origin and their import into the organelle have been studied in evolutionary distinct organisms.
Abstract: During evolution, most of the bacterial genes from the ancestral endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria at the origin of mitochondria have been either lost or transferred to the nuclear genome. A crucial evolutionary step was the establishment of macromolecule import systems to allow the come back of proteins and RNAs into the organelle. Paradoxically, the few mitochondria-encoded protein genes remain essential and must be translated by a mitochondrial translation machinery mainly constituted by nucleus-encoded components. Two crucial partners of the mitochondrial translation machinery are the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and the tRNAs. All mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and many tRNAs are imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. During the last few years, their origin and their import into the organelle have been studied in evolutionary distinct organisms and we review here what is known in this field.

118 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These findings identify unexpected components of the tRNA import machinery and suggest that the plant tRNAs import pathway has evolved by recruiting multifunctional proteins.
Abstract: In plants, as in most eukaryotic cells, import of nuclear-encoded cytosolic tRNAs is an essential process for mitochondrial biogenesis. Despite its broad occurrence, the mechanisms governing RNA transport into mitochondria are far less understood than protein import. This article demonstrates by Northwestern and gel-shift experiments that the plant mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) protein interacts with tRNA in vitro. It shows also that this porin, known to play a key role in metabolite transport, is a major component of the channel involved in the tRNA translocation step through the plant mitochondrial outer membrane, as supported by inhibition of tRNA import into isolated mitochondria by VDAC antibodies and Ruthenium red. However VDAC is not a tRNA receptor on the outer membrane. Rather, two major components from the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, namely TOM20 and TOM40, are important for tRNA binding at the surface of mitochondria, suggesting that they are also involved in tRNA import. Finally, we show that proteins and tRNAs are translocated into plant mitochondria by different pathways. Together, these findings identify unexpected components of the tRNA import machinery and suggest that the plant tRNA import pathway has evolved by recruiting multifunctional proteins.

109 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
20 Oct 2006-Science
TL;DR: It is found that the Leishmania RNA import complex (RIC) could enter human cells by a caveolin-1–dependent pathway, where it induced import of endogenous cytosolic tRNAs, including tRNALys, and restored mitochondrial function in a cybrid harboring a mutant mt tRNalys (MT-TK) gene.
Abstract: Many maternally inherited and incurable neuromyopathies are caused by mutations in mitochondrial (mt) transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Kinetoplastid protozoa, including Leishmania, have evolved specialized systems for importing nucleus-encoded tRNAs into mitochondria. We found that the Leishmania RNA import complex (RIC) could enter human cells by a caveolin-1-dependent pathway, where it induced import of endogenous cytosolic tRNAs, including tRNA(Lys), and restored mitochondrial function in a cybrid harboring a mutant mt tRNA(Lys) (MT-TK) gene. The use of protein complexes to modulate mitochondrial function may help in the management of such genetic disorders.

94 citations


References
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Book
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TL;DR: The goal of this series is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive introductions to their fields.
Abstract: New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields like basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical ther modynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the grad uate level, suffer from a real lack of up-to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research which is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive introductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one semester or one quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. CHARLES R. CANTOR New York Preface This monograph is based on a review on polynucleotide structures written for a book series in 1976."

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"“Ping-Pong” Interactions between Mi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Human mitochondria do not import tRNA, but a number of neuromuscular degenerative and metabolic diseases are caused by mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes (21)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jul 1998-Science
Abstract: Mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex performs two functions: It is a respiratory multienzyme complex and it recognizes a mitochondrial targeting presequence. Refined crystal structures of the 11-subunit bc1 complex from bovine heart reveal full views of this bifunctional enzyme. The "Rieske" iron-sulfur protein subunit shows significant conformational changes in different crystal forms, suggesting a new electron transport mechanism of the enzyme. The mitochondrial targeting presequence of the "Rieske" protein (subunit 9) is lodged between the two "core" subunits at the matrix side of the complex. These "core" subunits are related to the matrix processing peptidase, and the structure unveils how mitochondrial targeting presequences are recognized.

1,144 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Molecular chaperones in the matrix exert multiple functions in translocation, sorting, folding, and assembly of newly imported proteins.
Abstract: Mitochondria import many hundreds of different proteins that are encoded by nuclear genes These proteins are targeted to the mitochondria, translocated through the mitochondrial membranes, and sorted to the different mitochondrial subcompartments Separate translocases in the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex) and in the inner membrane (TIM complex) facilitate recognition of preproteins and transport across the two membranes Factors in the cytosol assist in targeting of preproteins Protein components in the matrix partake in energetically driving translocation in a reaction that depends on the membrane potential and matrix-ATP Molecular chaperones in the matrix exert multiple functions in translocation, sorting, folding, and assembly of newly imported proteins

1,079 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The TIM23 complex is a major translocase in the inner mitochondrial membrane that uses two energy sources, namely membrane potential and ATP, to facilitate preprotein translocation across the inner membrane and insertion into the inner membranes.
Abstract: Mitochondria comprise approx. 1000–3000 different proteins, almost all of which must be imported from the cytosol into the organelle. So far, six complex molecular machines, protein translocases, were identified that mediate this process. The TIM23 complex is a major translocase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It uses two energy sources, namely membrane potential and ATP, to facilitate preprotein translocation across the inner membrane and insertion into the inner membrane. Recent research has led to the discovery of a number of new constituents of the TIM23 complex and to the unravelling of the mechanisms of preprotein translocation.

459 citations


"“Ping-Pong” Interactions between Mi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Moreover, the sequence and bioenergetic requirements for outer and inner membrane transfer are nonidentical (2), indicating the presence of a distinct transport machinery (the RNA import complex [RIC]) at the inner membrane, a situation similar to the TOM and TIM complexes for protein import (15)....

    [...]