Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters
20 Mar 2013-arXiv: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics-
Abstract: We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find a 95% upper limit of r<0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N_eff=3.30+/-0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the summed neutrino mass. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of N_eff=3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy. Despite the success of the standard LCDM model, this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles, as noted previously by the WMAP team. While not of decisive significance, this is an anomaly in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.
Abstract: The time dependent vacuum energy provides new mechanism for describing the entire cosmic history (from inflation to dark energy) of the universe. In the framework of DGP braneworld theory, we discuss the dynamical properties of varying vacuum cosmology by considering the interaction between the cosmological fluids. We engage various functional forms (linear and non-linear) of interaction term and apply dynamical system approach. In each case, we compute critical points as well as examine their existence and stability. These cosmological solutions describe the different cosmological eras. It is observed that in each case, system admits the stable critical points for small values of interaction parameter b (strength of interaction) which is a favorable condition from the observational point of view. We also develop the phase space portraits of the interaction models and find attractive behavior of the universe for the majority cases of interaction models.
Abstract: We present cosmological constraints from a joint analysis of type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations obtained by the SDSS-II and SNLS collaborations. The data set includes several low-redshift samples (z<0.1), all 3 seasons from the SDSS-II (0.05 < z < 0.4), and 3 years from SNLS (0.2
Abstract: We constrain a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMF) by its contribution to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy angular power spectrum with the combination of WMAP 7 year and South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. The contamination in the SPT data by unresolved point sources and by the Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect due to galaxy clusters has been taken into account as modelled by the SPT Collaboration. With this combination of WMAP 7 year and SPT data, we constrain the amplitude Gaussian smoothed over 1 Mpc scale of a stochastic background of non-helical PMF to B 1 Mpc 3.5 nG at 95% confidence level, improving on previous bounds. Our analysis shows that SPT data up to l = 3000 bring an improvement of almost a factor two with respect to results with previous CMB high- l data. We then discuss the forecasted impact from unresolved points sources and SZ effect for Planck capabilities in constraining PMF.
Abstract: Gravitational lensing provides a significant source of cosmological information in modern CMB parameter analyses. It is measured in both the power spectrum and trispectrum of the temperature fluctuations. These observables are often treated as independent, although as they are both determined from the same map this is impossible. In this paper, we perform a rigorous analysis of the covariance between lensing power spectrum and trispectrum analyses. We find two dominant contributions coming from: (i) correlations between the disconnected noise bias in the trispectrum measurement and sample variance in the temperature power spectrum; and (ii) sample variance of the lenses themselves. The former is naturally removed when the dominant N0 Gaussian bias in the reconstructed deflection spectrum is dealt with via a partially data-dependent correction, as advocated elsewhere for other reasons. The remaining lens-cosmic-variance contribution is easily modeled but can safely be ignored for a Planck-like experiment, justifying treating the two observable spectra as independent. We also test simple likelihood approximations for the deflection power spectrum, finding that a Gaussian with a parameter-independent covariance performs well.
Abstract: We present data products from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS is based on the Wide component of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). It encompasses 154 deg^2 of deep, optical, high-quality, sub-arcsecond imaging data in the five optical filters u*g′r′i′z′. The scientific aims of the CFHTLenS team are weak gravitational lensing studies supported by photometric redshift estimates for the galaxies. This paper presents our data processing of the complete CFHTLenS data set. We were able to obtain a data set with very good image quality and high-quality astrometric and photometric calibration. Our external astrometric accuracy is between 60 and 70 mas with respect to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, and the internal alignment in all filters is around 30 mas. Our average photometric calibration shows a dispersion of the order of 0.01–0.03 mag for g′r′i′z′ and about 0.04 mag for u* with respect to SDSS sources down to i_(SDSS) ≤ 21. We demonstrate in accompanying papers that our data meet necessary requirements to fully exploit the survey for weak gravitational lensing analyses in connection with photometric redshift studies. In the spirit of the CFHTLS, all our data products are released to the astronomical community via the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/community/CFHTLens/query.html. We give a description and how-to manuals of the public products which include image pixel data, source catalogues with photometric redshift estimates and all relevant quantities to perform weak lensing studies.
Abstract: We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations, and line-of-sight accelerations measured from a 10-year monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 +/- 0.17 +/- 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble Constant, based on the use of the Cepheid Variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale (Riess et al. 2011), is H_0 = 72.0 +/- 3.0 km/s/Mpc.
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