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Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations Are Decreased in Insulin-Resistant Obese Adults Relative to Equally Obese Insulin-Sensitive Controls

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TLDR
It is demonstrated that in obese individuals, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are inversely associated with ghrelin concentrations, suggesting that insulin resistance or related metabolic abnormalities may constitute part of a feedback mechanism by which body weight is regulated in humans.
Abstract
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone that may play a role in body weight regulation, is reduced in states of obesity. Because obesity is associated with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia, we determined whether these metabolic characteristics were independently associated with suppressed ghrelin concentrations. To investigate this hypothesis, using steady-state plasma glucose concentrations, we identified 20 insulin-resistant (IR) and 20 insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals who were equally obese. The mean body mass indexes were 32.5 +/- 0.4 and 32.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2) for the IR and IS groups, respectively. Fasting insulin concentrations were 19.5 and 7.4 micro U/ml (P < 0.001), respectively. Ghrelin concentrations were suppressed in the IR group (252 +/- 19 pg/ml) relative to the IS group (412 +/- 35 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Ghrelin correlated inversely with both insulin resistance (r = -0.64; P < 0.001) and fasting insulin concentration (r = -0.58; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that both insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia independently predicted low ghrelin concentrations. Our results demonstrate that in obese individuals, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are inversely associated with ghrelin concentrations. Thus, insulin resistance or related metabolic abnormalities may constitute part of a feedback mechanism by which body weight is regulated in humans.

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Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin.

TL;DR: This review summarizes recent knowledge on leptin and its receptor and on ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin and emphasizes their roles in pathobiochemistry and clinical chemistry.
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Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight.

TL;DR: Extant evidence favors roles for ghrelin in both short-term meal initiation and long-term energy homeostasis, making it an attractive target for drugs to treat obesity and/or wasting disorders.
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Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population.

TL;DR: A list of promising biomarkers that are associated with metabolic syndrome are compiled and this panel can aid in early detection and management of metabolic syndrome in high risk populations, such as in West Virginia.
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Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Fructose- and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals in Obese Men and Women: Influence of Insulin Resistance on Plasma Triglyceride Responses

TL;DR: In obese subjects, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals was associated with less insulin secretion, blunted diurnal leptin profiles, and increased postprandial TG concentrations compared with glucose consumption, suggesting that fructose consumption may exacerbate an already adverse metabolic profile present in many obese subjects.
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Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects.

TL;DR: In this article, post-prandial ghrelin response was measured in normal-weight insulin-sensitive subjects and obese insulin-resistant subjects, after six test meals with different fat and calorie content (250-3000 kcal).
References
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Journal ArticleDOI

The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum

TL;DR: The relatively low density of the lipoproteins was utilized by Lindgren, Elliott, and Gofman to separate them from the other serum proteins by ultracentrifugal flotation, and quantitation was subsequently performed by refractometric methods in the analytical ultracentRifuge.
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Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.

TL;DR: The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelIn, a peptide specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro.
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Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.

TL;DR: It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
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A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.

TL;DR: It is shown that ghrelin is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis and probably has a function in growth regulation by stimulating feeding and release of growth hormone.
Journal ArticleDOI

A Preprandial Rise in Plasma Ghrelin Levels Suggests a Role in Meal Initiation in Humans

TL;DR: The hypothesis that ghrelin plays a physiological role in meal initiation in humans is supported by the clear preprandials rise and postprandial fall in plasma ghrelIn levels.
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