Journal Article

# Plasticity and fracture behavior of Inconel 625 manufactured by laser powder bed fusion: Comparison between as-built and stress relieved conditions

04 Mar 2021--Vol. 806, pp 140808
Abstract: In this study, the influence of stress relief on the plasticity and fracture behavior of Inconel 625 fabricated through laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) was investigated. The as-built versus stress relieved microstructures were compared, showing similar grain structures but the presence of ~10 vol % δ phase in the stress relieved condition, and no δ phase in the as-built condition. Mechanical tests under plane strain tension were performed on the stress relieved samples, and an anisotropic plasticity model was calibrated and validated using finite element simulations. Uniaxial and notched tension tests were performed on both as-built and stress relieved samples to probe the effect of stress relief on stress state- and direction-dependent fracture behavior. It was found that on average, the fracture strain of the stress relieved samples along the build direction was 30% higher than that along the perpendicular build direction in the stress state range studied, and the stress relief heat treatment resulted in a 45% decrease in fracture strain. The fracture strain in stress relieved samples was more strongly dependent on stress state than in as-built samples.

Topics: Plane stress (60%), Stress (mechanics) (58%), Plasticity (54%) ... show more
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Open accessJournal Article
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) as a disruptive technology has received much attention in recent years. In practice, however, much effort is focused on the AM of polymers. It is comparatively more expensive and more challenging to additively manufacture metallic parts due to their high temperature, the cost of producing powders, and capital outlays for metal additive manufacturing equipment. The main technology currently used by numerous companies in the aerospace and biomedical sectors to fabricate metallic parts is powder bed technology, in which either electron or laser beams are used to melt and fuse the powder particles line by line to make a three-dimensional part. Since this technology is new and also sought by manufacturers, many scientific questions have arisen that need to be answered. This manuscript gives an introduction to the technology and common materials and applications. Furthermore, the microstructure and quality of parts made using powder bed technology for several materials that are commonly fabricated using this technology are reviewed and the effects of several process parameters investigated in the literature are examined. New advances in fabricating highly conductive metals such as copper and aluminum are discussed and potential for future improvements is explored.

1 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
17 Sep 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: Inconel 625, a nickel-based superalloy, has drawn much attention in the emerging field of additive manufacturing (AM) because of its excellent weldability and resistance to hot cracking. The extreme processing condition of AM often introduces enormous residual stress (hundreds of MPa to GPa) in the as-fabricated parts, which requires stress-relief heat treatment to remove or reduce the internal stresses. Typical residual stress heat treatment for AM Inconel 625, conducted at 800 °C or 870 °C, introduces a substantial precipitation of the δ phase, a deleterious intermetallic phase. In this work, we used synchrotron-based in situ scattering and diffraction methods and ex situ electron microscopy to investigate the solid-state transformation of an AM Inconel 625 at 700 °C. Our results show that while the δ phase still precipitates from the matrix at this temperature, its precipitation rate and size at a given time are both smaller when compared with their counterparts during typical heat treatment temperatures of 800 °C and 870 °C. A comparison with thermodynamic modeling predictions elucidates these experimental findings. Our work provides the rigorous microstructural kinetics data required to explore the feasibility of a promising lower-temperature stress-relief heat treatment for AM Inconel 625. The combined methodology is readily extendable to investigate the solid-state transformation of other AM alloys.

1 Citations

Journal Article
Abstract: Inconel 625 specimens with different levels of purposely induced defects (up to ~3% of specimen volume) were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion. They were subjected to a stress relief annealing followed by hot isostatic pressing. After each step of post-processing, the residual porosity and the pore size distribution were measured using the computed tomography technique. Tensile and fatigue crack growth testing were then carried out to evaluate the impact of residual defects on the mechanical resistance and damage tolerance of the manufactured specimens. Hot isostatic pressing was effective in reducing the processing-induced defect count and size, but near-the-surface defects were still observed. Large clusters of residual defects were also observed for specimens manufactured with ~3% porosity. The elongation at break, and, to a lesser extent, the tensile strength were impacted by an as-manufactured porosity as small as 0.25%. Fatigue crack growth testing showed that HIP increases the threshold stress intensity factor for long fatigue crack propagation from ~7 to ~9 MPa*m1/2 and that irrespective of the level of as-manufactured porosity. An as-manufactured porosity smaller that 1% did not impact the fatigue crack growth rate of hot isostatic pressed specimens significantly, whereas occasional crack retardation was observed for specimens with an as-manufactured porosity of ~3%.

Journal Article
01 Dec 2021-
Abstract: Inconel 625 (IN625) has an excellent suite of high temperature mechanical properties that encourages its use in fabricating jet engine and gas turbine components. Apart from conventional manufacturing methods, recent advances in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), a laser-based additive manufacturing method, has enjoyed reasonable success in producing crack-free near net shaped components made of IN625. With the purpose of understanding its applications and limitations, the mechanical behavior of LPBF manufactured IN625 is reviewed in detail. First, the microstructural evolution in the as-built state is discussed. Furthermore, the changes in microstructure with respect to various heat treatments are well explained. Correlations between microstructural dependence and process-induced defects on uniaxial tensile characteristics at ambient and elevated temperatures are highlighted. Similarly, microstructural correlations are made with fracture, fatigue life and creep behaviors of LPBF IN625. Finally, the current research gaps and unfulfilled challenges are summarized to postulate future research directions.

Topics: Inconel 625 (55%)
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33 results found

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: A theory is suggested which describes, on a macroscopic scale, the yielding and plastic flow of an anisotropic metal. The type of anisotropy considered is that resulting from preferred orientation. A yield criterion is postulated on general grounds which is similar in form to the Huber-Mises criterion for isotropic metals, but which contains six parameters specifying the state of anisotropy. By using von Mises' concept (1928) of a plastic potential, associated relations are then found between the stress and strain-increment tensors. The theory is applied to experiments of Korber & Hoff (1928) on the necking under uniaxial tension of thin strips cut from rolled sheet. It is shown, in full agreement with experimental data, that there are generally two, equally possible, necking directions whose orientation depends on the angle between the strip axis and the rolling direction. As a second example, pure torsion of a thin-walled cylinder is analyzed. With increasing twist anisotropy is developed. In accordance with recent observations by Swift (1947), the theory predicts changes in length of the cylinder. The theory is also applied to determine the earing positions in cups deep-drawn from rolled sheet.

Topics: Necking (61%), Lankford coefficient (60%), Hill yield criterion (57%) ... show more

3,097 Citations

Journal Article
Tarasankar Debroy1, Huiliang Wei1, J.S. Zuback1, T. Mukherjee1  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Since its inception, significant progress has been made in understanding additive manufacturing (AM) processes and the structure and properties of the fabricated metallic components. Because the field is rapidly evolving, a periodic critical assessment of our understanding is useful and this paper seeks to address this need. It covers the emerging research on AM of metallic materials and provides a comprehensive overview of the physical processes and the underlying science of metallurgical structure and properties of the deposited parts. The uniqueness of this review includes substantive discussions on refractory alloys, precious metals and compositionally graded alloys, a succinct comparison of AM with welding and a critical examination of the printability of various engineering alloys based on experiments and theory. An assessment of the status of the field, the gaps in the scientific understanding and the research needs for the expansion of AM of metallic components are provided.

2,278 Citations

Journal Article
Yuanli Bai1, Tomasz Wierzbicki1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that the hydrostatic pressure has no or negligible effect on the material strain hardening, and that the flow stress is independent of the third deviatoric stress invariant (or Lode angle parameter). However, recent experiments on metals have shown that both the pressure effect and the effect of the third deviatoric stress invariant should be included in the constitutive description of the material. A general form of asymmetric metal plasticity, considering both the pressure sensitivity and the Lode dependence, is postulated. The calibration method for the new metal plasticity is discussed. Experimental results on aluminum 2024-T351 are shown to validate the new material model. From the similarity between yielding surface and fracture locus, a new 3D asymmetric fracture locus, in the space of equivalent fracture strain, stress triaxiality and the Lode angle parameter, is postulated. Two methods of calibration of the fracture locus are discussed. One is based on classical round specimens and flat specimens in uniaxial tests, and the other one uses the newly designed butterfly specimen under biaxial testing. Test results of Bao (2003) [Bao, Y., 2003. Prediction of ductile crack formation in uncracked bodies. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology] on aluminum 2024-T351, and test data points of A710 steel from butterfly specimens under biaxial testing validated the postulated asymmetric 3D fracture locus.

Topics: Plasticity (56%), Hydrostatic pressure (55%), Fracture (geology) (54%) ... show more

1,091 Citations

Open access
01 Jan 1913-
Abstract: DigiZeitschriften e.V. gewährt ein nicht exklusives, nicht übertragbares, persönliches und beschränktes Recht auf Nutzung dieses Dokuments. Dieses Dokument ist ausschließlich für den persönlichen, nicht kommerziellen Gebrauch bestimmt. Das Copyright bleibt bei den Herausgebern oder sonstigen Rechteinhabern. Als Nutzer sind Sie sind nicht dazu berechtigt, eine Lizenz zu übertragen, zu transferieren oder an Dritte weiter zu geben. Die Nutzung stellt keine Übertragung des Eigentumsrechts an diesem Dokument dar und gilt vorbehaltlich der folgenden Einschränkungen: Sie müssen auf sämtlichen Kopien dieses Dokuments alle Urheberrechtshinweise und sonstigen Hinweise auf gesetzlichen Schutz beibehalten; und Sie dürfen dieses Dokument nicht in irgend einer Weise abändern, noch dürfen Sie dieses Dokument für öffentliche oder kommerzielle Zwecke vervielfältigen, öffentlich ausstellen, aufführen, vertreiben oder anderweitig nutzen; es sei denn, es liegt Ihnen eine schriftliche Genehmigung von DigiZeitschriften e.V. und vom Herausgeber oder sonstigen Rechteinhaber vor. Mit dem Gebrauch von DigiZeitschriften e.V. und der Verwendung dieses Dokuments erkennen Sie die Nutzungsbedingungen an.

806 Citations

Journal Article
Yuanli Bai1, Yuanli Bai2, Tomasz Wierzbicki2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The Mohr–Coulomb (M–C) fracture criterion is revisited with an objective of describing ductile fracture of isotropic crack-free solids. This criterion has been extensively used in rock and soil mechanics as it correctly accounts for the effects of hydrostatic pressure as well as the Lode angle parameter. It turns out that these two parameters, which are critical for characterizing fracture of geo-materials, also control fracture of ductile metals (Bai and Wierzbicki 2008; Xue 2007; Barsoum 2006; Wilkins et al. 1980). The local form of the M–C criterion is transformed/extended to the spherical coordinate system, where the axes are the equivalent strain to fracture $${\bar \varepsilon_f}$$ , the stress triaxiality η, and the normalized Lode angle parameter $${\bar \theta}$$ . For a proportional loading, the fracture surface is shown to be an asymmetric function of $${\bar \theta}$$ . A detailed parametric study is performed to demonstrate the effect of model parameters on the fracture locus. It was found that the M–C fracture locus predicts almost exactly the exponential decay of the material ductility with stress triaxiality, which is in accord with theoretical analysis of Rice and Tracey (1969) and the empirical equation of Hancock and Mackenzie (1976), Johnson and Cook (1985). The M–C criterion also predicts a form of Lode angle dependence which is close to parabolic. Test results of two materials, 2024-T351 aluminum alloy and TRIP RA-K40/70 (TRIP690) high strength steel sheets, are used to calibrate and validate the proposed M–C fracture model. Another advantage of the M–C fracture model is that it predicts uniquely the orientation of the fracture surface. It is shown that the direction cosines of the unit normal vector to the fracture surface are functions of the “friction” coefficient in the M–C criterion. The phenomenological and physical sound M–C criterion has a great potential to be used as an engineering tool for predicting ductile fracture.