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Journal ArticleDOI

Platform Interactions and Emergence of an Organizational Field: Case Study on Ola

17 Dec 2019-Australasian Journal of Information Systems (Australasian Association for Information Systems)-Vol. 23
TL;DR: It is posit that digital platforms are emerging organizational fields embodying new network logics with algorithms and technology-mediated interactions playing a central role in creating value, and conceptualizing organizational field as digital platforms enables making sense of the changing business landscape, and examine issues of sustainability and legitimacy.
Abstract: Most digital enterprises begin as technology start-ups offering niche services, and then evolve into digital platforms providing a range of services. Against the backdrop of almost non-existent logistic and supply chain infrastructure, weak regulatory framework, low penetration of smartphones and Internet, low consumer confidence and trust on online transactions, digital entrepreneurs in developing countries literally have to build the platform ecosystem along with their organization. In this paper, we use institutional theory as a lens to trace the emergence and evolution of digital platforms in India. We posit that digital platforms are emerging organizational fields embodying new network logics with algorithms and technology-mediated interactions playing a central role in creating value. In particular, we take the case of Ola, an online cab aggregator from India to illustrate that digital platforms as organizational field evolve through three phases of (a) innovation introduction, (b) mobilization and (c) structuration. In the first phase, the organizational field characteristics are consequences of activities undertaken to raise cognitive legitimacy and respond to competitive forces. In the second phase, a mix of coercive and mimetic forces shape the institutional field resulting in increase in socio-political legitimacies. In the third phase, the process of structuration sets in as isomorphic forces become more normative. The theoretical framework developed in this paper contributes to extant information system research by putting forth that the characteristics of emerging organizational field are shaped by the interplay between the responses of the focal organization to isomorphic forces, and the actions taken by it to establish cognitive and socio-political legitimacies. Empirically the study is on digital platforms located in a large developing country with very high potential for online transactions but relatively low penetration of Internet and smartphones. Conceptualizing organizational field as digital platforms enables making sense of the changing business landscape, and examine issues of sustainability and legitimacy.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present and apply the "multi-level perspective" as a framework to understand platforms in development as socio-technical transitions by analyzing a successful ride-hailing platform, EasyTaxi in Colombia.
Abstract: Digital platforms play an increasing role across socio-economic sectors in developing countries yet development research to date on this topic has been limited and under-conceptualised To help facilitate such research in future, this paper presents and applies the “multi-level perspective” as a framework to understand platforms in development as socio-technical transitions Analysing a successful ride-hailing platform—EasyTaxi in Colombia—it finds what was originally a niche innovation then effected a socio-technical transition within Bogota’s taxi regime Although there are some issues in applying the framework, it is found to have a factoral, scalar and longitudinal holism that were lacking in existing conceptualisations within the literature on platforms and developing countries The multi-level perspective offers insights into the process of innovation, rapidity of scaling, and development impacts relating to resource endowments, institutional formalisation, and shifts in power The framework may therefore be a useful lens for development researchers seeking to better understand digital platforms

5 citations


Cites background from "Platform Interactions and Emergence..."

  • ...Yet, the developmental impact of a platform can only be understood in relation to these ‘existing ways’, and the scaling of any platform is based on the intersection of new and existing technologies and practices, and is either implicitly or explicitly in competition with existing alternatives (Mukerji and Roy 2019; Offenhuber 2019)....

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  • ...from absence to presence, or informality to formality (Mukerji and Roy 2019; Heeks et al. 2020), and changing distributions of power between groups including changes in social relations and resource distribution (Arora and Thompson 2019; Ye and Yang 2020)....

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  • ...…of institutions: informal institutions such as norms and practices for a particular activity, more formal institutions such as sectoral laws and regulations, or institution-related factors such as platform business strategies (Shao and Kenney 2018; Chrysantina et al. 2019; Mukerji and Roy 2019)....

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  • ...2018), or systemic institutions via institutional theory (Mukerji and Roy 2019; Renner-Micah et al. 2020)....

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  • ...• There are meso-level systemic factors, which are mainly understood in terms of institutions: informal institutions such as norms and practices for a particular activity, more formal institutions such as sectoral laws and regulations, or institution-related factors such as platform business strategies (Shao and Kenney 2018; Chrysantina et al. 2019; Mukerji and Roy 2019)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the relationship between Instagram practices and the engagement of 20 Australian SMEs pre and during Covid-19 and found a statistically significant relationship between the number of UGCs to Instagram engagement, while CTA content performance recorded a mixed result.
Abstract: Instagram has gained the attention of hundreds of millions of users and evolved quickly into a critical customer engagement tool for businesses worldwide, more so during Covid-19. Impacts of Covid-19 have fundamentally changed the market, and therefore, this paper explores the relationship between Instagram practices and the engagement of 20 Australian SMEs (Small medium enterprises) pre and during Covid-19. This study aims to answer the following questions: (1) How should user-generated content (UGC) and call to act content (CTA) be included as Instagram posts? (2) How to use #Hashtags and @Tagging in Instagram posts to keep a campaign going? (3) How Instagram can be utilised to mitigate the effect of Covid-19? Findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between the number of UGCs to Instagram engagement, while CTA content performance recorded a mixed result. However, both UGCs and CTA positively affect the engagement when used to build a virtual community and engage with followers rather than redirecting customers to online selling locations. Also, diversity in @Tagging and #Hashtag uses are found to be effective drivers of engagement. The results imply that addressing the Covid-19 related concerns of followers while showing genuine brand social responsibility can be rewarded by extra engagement.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings indicate that organizations are embedded in institutional networks and call for greater attention to be directed at understanding institutional pressures when investigating information technology innovations adoption.
Abstract: This study used institutional theory as a lens to understand the factors that enable the adoption of interorganizational systems. It posits that mimetic, coercive, and normative pressures existing in an institutionalized environment could influence organizational predisposition toward an information technology-based interorganizational linkage. Survey-based research was carried out to test this theory. Following questionnaire development, validation, and pretest with a pilot study, data were collected from the CEO, the CFO, and the CIO to measure the institutional pressures they faced and their intentions to adopt financial electronic data interchange (FEDI). A firm-level structural model was developed based on the CEO's, the CFO's, and the CIO's data. LISREL and PLS were used for testing the measurement and structural models respectively. Results showed that all three institutional pressures-mimetic pressures, coercive pressures, and normative pressures-had a significant influence on organizational intention to adopt FEDI. Except for perceived extent of adoption among suppliers, all other subconstructs were significant in the model. These results provide strong support for institutional-based variables as predictors of adoption intention for interorganizational linkages. These findings indicate that organizations are embedded in institutional networks and call for greater attention to be directed at understanding institutional pressures when investigating information technology innovations adoption.

1,601 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The institutional entrepreneurship implicit in a firm's sponsorship of its technology as a common standard is beset by several challenges as mentioned in this paper, which arise from a standard's property to enabl...
Abstract: The institutional entrepreneurship implicit in a firm's sponsorship of its technology as a common standard is beset by several challenges. These challenges arise from a standard's property to enabl...

1,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors suggest that the market serves as a magnet around which groups of actors consolidate, and that cognition of markets occurs through the creation, distribution, and interpretation of a web of information about the "market."
Abstract: In this paper we outline a key mechanism through which organizational fields are constituted. We suggest that in competitive fields, the market serves as a magnet around which groups of actors consolidate, and that cognition of markets occurs through the creation, distribution, and interpretation of a web of information about the "market." To illustrate our theory, we present a case study of theBillboard music chart from the commercial music industry to show that changes in either scope, methodology, or political tone with which market information is presented can provide a major jolt to the participants' understanding of their field.

316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using a cross-case analysis based on data from 11 firms in the high-tech industry, evidence is found to support propositions that relational depth, relationship extendability, and normative pressure were important for dominant firms while relational specificity and influence mechanisms wereImportant for nondominant firms.
Abstract: Organizations have not fully realized the benefits of interorganizational relationships (IORs) due to the lack of cross-enterprise process integration capabilities Recently, interorganizational business process standards (IBPS) enabled by information technology (IT) have been suggested as a solution to help organizations overcome this problem Drawing on three theoretical perspectives, ie, the relational view of the firm, institutional theory, and organizational inertia theory, we propose three mechanisms---relational, influence, and inertial---to explain the assimilation of IBPS in organizations We theorize that these mechanisms will have differential effects on the assimilation of IBPS in dominant and nondominant firms Using a cross-case analysis based on data from 11 firms in the high-tech industry, we found evidence to support our propositions that relational depth, relationship extendability, and normative pressure were important for dominant firms while relational specificity and influence mechanisms (coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures) were important for nondominant firms Inertial mechanisms, ie, ability and willingness to overcome resource and routine rigidities, were important for both dominant and nondominant firms

241 citations