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Journal ArticleDOI

Poetic Expressions: Students of Color Express Resiliency Through Metaphors and Similes

Horace R. Hall1
01 Feb 2007-Journal of Advanced Academics (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 216-244

AbstractThe after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced. The students of color who attended the program used various forms of creative written expression (i.e., poetry, spoken word, and hip hop) to document and share their lived realities as African American and Latino youth. An analysis of their writings and subsequent interviews revealed a variety of coping strategies and resources that these resilient adolescent males of color used to transcend adversity in their environment. When adolescent males of color have a strong sense of cultural pride and awareness, they are able to construct a healthy self-concept that assists them in acts of agency and resistance against negative psychological forces in their environment. These students used familial and nonfamilial support mechanisms, such as peers, church, and mentors, to assist them in reducing the stressful im...

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Abstract: Race and Racism w “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” featuring Dr. Beverly Tatum’s book. w “Recovering from Racism: Redefining What it Means to be White.” w “50th Anniversary of Brown vs. Board of Education.” w “The Mis-Education of the Negro” featuring Dr. Carter Woodson’s book. w “Moving Past the Margins: Creating successful strategies for Black males on campus,” presenting the Black Male Development Initiative (BMDI). w “He had a Dream... What is Yours?” Addressing Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech and its current relevance in our society. w “Demystifying Malcolm X.” w “Racial Stereotyping and Responses to Terrorism.” w “Racial Stereotyping – Responding to Fear.” w “Free, White and (over) 21: Being White in a Multicultural World.” w “Constructing Race and Ethnicity in the 21st Century.” w “How did I Learn about Culture and Race?” Sharing your personal experiences and memories of moments where you become aware of similarities and differences among people. w “ABC: American-Born... and Confused?” w “The Invisible Asian: Where are the Asians in Diversity?” w “100 Years of Race Talk: Is It Enough?”

997 citations


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Abstract: Post-structuralist theory and the study of gendered childhoods the subjects of childhood knowledge and the subjects of reading and writing a vision of femininity? (masculine) transformations sexuality deconstructive reading writing beyond the male-female dualism.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors use the notion of White racial framing to move outside of the traditional arguments for or against transracial adoption to instead explore how a close analysis of the adoptive parents’ racial instructions may serve as a learning tool to foster more democratic and inclusive forms of family and community.
Abstract: In this article, the authors examine White parents’ endeavors toward the racial enculturation and inculcation of their transracially adopted Black children. Drawing on in-depth interviews, the authors identify and analyze themes across the specific race socialization strategies and practices White adoptive parents used to help their adopted Black children to develop a positive racial identity and learn how to effectively cope with issues of race and racism. The central aim of this article is to examine how these lessons about race help to connect family members to U.S. society’s existing racial hierarchy and how these associations position individuals to help perpetuate or challenge the deeply embedded and historical structures of White supremacy. The authors use the notion of White racial framing to move outside of the traditional arguments for or against transracial adoption to instead explore how a close analysis of the adoptive parents’ racial instructions may serve as a learning tool to foster more democratic and inclusive forms of family and community.

72 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...Resiliency is a protective mechanism that is requisite for individuals to successfully struggle against racism (Hall, 2007; Phinney, Cantu, & Kurtz, 1997)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of achievement within an arts enrichment preschool that served low-income children and a comparison to a nearby alternative on a measure of receptive vocabulary suggest that arts enrichment may advance educational outcomes for children at risk.
Abstract: Arts enrichment provides varied channels for acquiring school readiness skills and may offer important educational opportunities for students from diverse backgrounds and with diverse needs. Study 1 examined achievement within an arts enrichment preschool that served low-income children. Results indicated that students practiced school readiness skills through early learning, music, creative movement, and visual arts classes. Students who attended the preschool for 2 years demonstrated higher achievement than those who attended for 1 year, suggesting that maturation alone did not account for achievement gains. Across 2 years of program attendance and four time points of assessment, students improved in school readiness skills, and there were no significant effects of race/ethnicity or developmental level on achievement growth. Study 2 compared students attending the arts enrichment preschool to those attending a nearby alternative on a measure of receptive vocabulary that has been found to predict school success. At the end of 1 year of attendance, students in the arts program showed greater receptive vocabulary than those at the comparison preschool. Results suggest that arts enrichment may advance educational outcomes for children at risk.

61 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...Including the arts in education provides opportunities for building on students’ cultural knowledge, incorporating varied cultural traditions, and encouraging students to bring their individual realities into the classroom (Allison & Rehm, 2007; Hall, 2007)....

    [...]


References
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Book
01 Jan 1968
Abstract: Identity, Erikson writes, is an unfathomable as it is all-pervasive. It deals with a process that is located both in the core of the individual and in the core of the communal culture. As the culture changes, new kinds of identity questions arise-Erikson comments, for example, on issues of social protest and changing gender roles that were particular to the 1960s. Representing two decades of groundbreaking work, the essays are not so much a systematic formulation of theory as an evolving report that is both clinical and theoretical. The subjects range from "creative confusion" in two famous lives-the dramatist George Bernard Shaw and the philosopher William James-to the connection between individual struggles and social order. "Race and the Wider Identity" and the controversial "Womanhood and the Inner Space" are included in the collection.

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Journal ArticleDOI

4,813 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...From a psychosocial perspective, adolescents are engaged in a conscious and unconscious search for an autonomous identity as they seek to understand their social roles in life (Erikson, 1968; Marcia, 1980)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The authors review their previous explanation of black students' underachievement. They now suggest the importance of considering black people's expressive responses to their historical status and experience in America. “Fictive kinship” is proposed as a framework for understanding how a sense of collective identity enters into the process of schooling and affects academic achievement. The authors support their argument with ethnographic data from a high school in Washington, D.C., showing how the fear of being accused of “acting white” causes a social and psychological situation which diminishes black students' academic effort and thus leads to underachievement. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed.

3,373 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Even though there is an abundance of work that focuses on why youth of color either fail or succeed academically (Cammarota, 2004; Conchas, 2001; Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Juarez, 1996; Majors & Billson, 1992; Osborne, 2001), there is little research that concentrates on the dynamics that build…...

    [...]


Reference BookDOI
30 Oct 2009
Abstract: The study of and interest in adolescence in the field of psychology and related fields continues to grow, necessitating an expanded revision of this seminal work. This multidisciplinary handbook, edited by the premier scholars in the field, Richard Lerner and Laurence Steinberg, and with contributions from the leading researchers, reflects the latest empirical work and growth in the field.

1,961 citations


Book
24 Jun 1999
Abstract: Introduction A Definition of Terms Defining RacismCan we talk? The Complexity of IdentityWho am I? Understanding Blackness In A White Context The Early YearsIs my skin brown because I drink chocolate milk? Identity Development in AdolescenceWhy are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? Racial Identity in AdulthoodStill a work in progress Understanding Whiteness In a White Context The Development of White IdentityIm not ethnic, Im just normal. White Identity and Affirmative ActionIm in favor of affirmative action except when it comes to my jobs. Beyond Black and White Critical Issues in Latino, American Indian, and Asian Pacific American Identity DevelopmentTheres more than just Black and White, you know. Identity Development in Multiracial FamiliesBut dont the children suffer? Breaking The Silence Embracing a Cross-Racial DialogueWe were struggling for the words.

1,555 citations