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Journal ArticleDOI

Poetic Expressions: Students of Color Express Resiliency Through Metaphors and Similes

Horace R. Hall1
01 Feb 2007-Journal of Advanced Academics (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 18, Iss: 2, pp 216-244
TL;DR: The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced. The students of color who attended the program used various forms of creative written expression (i.e., poetry, spoken word, and hip hop) to document and share their lived realities as African American and Latino youth. An analysis of their writings and subsequent interviews revealed a variety of coping strategies and resources that these resilient adolescent males of color used to transcend adversity in their environment. When adolescent males of color have a strong sense of cultural pride and awareness, they are able to construct a healthy self-concept that assists them in acts of agency and resistance against negative psychological forces in their environment. These students used familial and nonfamilial support mechanisms, such as peers, church, and mentors, to assist them in reducing the stressful im...

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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the Black Male Development Initiative (BMDI) as a strategy for Black males on campus and discuss their personal experiences and memories of moments where they become aware of similarities and differences among people.
Abstract: Race and Racism w “Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?” featuring Dr. Beverly Tatum’s book. w “Recovering from Racism: Redefining What it Means to be White.” w “50th Anniversary of Brown vs. Board of Education.” w “The Mis-Education of the Negro” featuring Dr. Carter Woodson’s book. w “Moving Past the Margins: Creating successful strategies for Black males on campus,” presenting the Black Male Development Initiative (BMDI). w “He had a Dream... What is Yours?” Addressing Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech and its current relevance in our society. w “Demystifying Malcolm X.” w “Racial Stereotyping and Responses to Terrorism.” w “Racial Stereotyping – Responding to Fear.” w “Free, White and (over) 21: Being White in a Multicultural World.” w “Constructing Race and Ethnicity in the 21st Century.” w “How did I Learn about Culture and Race?” Sharing your personal experiences and memories of moments where you become aware of similarities and differences among people. w “ABC: American-Born... and Confused?” w “The Invisible Asian: Where are the Asians in Diversity?” w “100 Years of Race Talk: Is It Enough?”

1,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a post-structuralist theory and the study of gendered childhoods are used to identify the subjects of childhood knowledge and reading and writing a vision of femininity.
Abstract: Post-structuralist theory and the study of gendered childhoods the subjects of childhood knowledge and the subjects of reading and writing a vision of femininity? (masculine) transformations sexuality deconstructive reading writing beyond the male-female dualism.

593 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a literature review on the role of school in adolescents' identity development from different research fields and to provide schools and teachers with insights into how adolescents’ identity development can be supported.
Abstract: Schools can play an important role in adolescents’ identity development. To date, research on the role of school in adolescents’ identity development is scattered across research fields that employ different theoretical perspectives on identity. The aim of this literature review was to integrate the findings on the role of school in adolescents’ identity development from different research fields and to provide schools and teachers with insights into how adolescents’ identity development can be supported. Using constant comparative analysis, 111 studies were analyzed. We included articles on personal and social identity and on school-related identity dimensions. Three groups of studies emerged. First, studies on how schools and teachers unintentionally impact adolescents’ identity showed that, at school, messages may unintentionally be communicated to adolescents concerning who they should or can be through differentiation and selection, teaching strategies, teacher expectations, and peer norms. Second, studies on how schools and teachers can intentionally support adolescents’ identity development showed that different types of explorative learning experiences can be organized to support adolescents’ identity development: experiences aimed at exploring new identity positions (in-breadth exploration), further specifying already existing self-understandings (in-depth exploration), and reflecting on self-understandings (reflective exploration). The third group suggests that explorative learning experiences must be meaningful and situated in a supportive classroom climate in order to foster adolescents’ identity development. Together, the existing studies suggest that schools and teachers are often unaware of the many different ways in which they may significantly impact adolescents’ identity development.

113 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...…(Rogers, Morrell, & Enyedy, 2007; Vianna & Stetsenko, 2011), three ethnographic studies that do not explicitly adopt a particular perspective (Hall, 2007; Hardee & Reyelt, 2009; Muhammad, 2012), and one theoretical study in which various perspectives on identity are combined (Henfield,…...

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  • ...Various theoretical articles, that either do not explicitly mention a perspective on identity development (Hall, 2007), or combine various perspectives on identity development (Harrell-Levy & Kerpelman, 2010; Ligorio, 2010), also argued that engaging adolescents in (internal) dialogues can help…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors use the notion of White racial framing to move outside of the traditional arguments for or against transracial adoption to instead explore how a close analysis of the adoptive parents’ racial instructions may serve as a learning tool to foster more democratic and inclusive forms of family and community.
Abstract: In this article, the authors examine White parents’ endeavors toward the racial enculturation and inculcation of their transracially adopted Black children. Drawing on in-depth interviews, the authors identify and analyze themes across the specific race socialization strategies and practices White adoptive parents used to help their adopted Black children to develop a positive racial identity and learn how to effectively cope with issues of race and racism. The central aim of this article is to examine how these lessons about race help to connect family members to U.S. society’s existing racial hierarchy and how these associations position individuals to help perpetuate or challenge the deeply embedded and historical structures of White supremacy. The authors use the notion of White racial framing to move outside of the traditional arguments for or against transracial adoption to instead explore how a close analysis of the adoptive parents’ racial instructions may serve as a learning tool to foster more democratic and inclusive forms of family and community.

75 citations


Cites background from "Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..."

  • ...Resiliency is a protective mechanism that is requisite for individuals to successfully struggle against racism (Hall, 2007; Phinney, Cantu, & Kurtz, 1997)....

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References
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: Although it may appear to represent an oxymoron within classical resiliency studies to argue that the more we can sustain and maintain (healthy) vulnerability in boys and young males the more resilient they will become and remain, that is precisely the argument of this chapter.
Abstract: Although it may appear to represent an oxymoron within classical resiliency studies to argue that the more we can sustain and maintain (healthy) vulnerability in boys and young males the more resilient they will become and remain, that is precisely the argument of this chapter. Indeed it remains at the heart of the deconstruction of our classic model of stoic separation-based models for healthy boyhood for which the hope for genuine resiliency for young (and, for that matter older) males may lie (Pollack, 1995a, 1995b, 1998, 1999, 2000).

11 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Pollack (2005) stated that “American society has not yet sufficiently studied the experiences of boys and young men and thus has come to misunderstand how they truly feel and who they really are” (p. 68)....

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  • ...There is even less research that incorporates their voices into the discussion (Pollack, 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth.
Abstract: This essay draws from the work of William James and three African American pragmatists, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ralph Ellison and Cornel West, to explore the moral relevance of the self as an empowered agent among African American youth. The focus is on Jamesian agency as a function of the individual's awareness of options in context, the self-empowerment that allows one to access those options, and the resulting behaviour that actualises perceived potentials. Case examples clarify how the awareness of self as an active and choice-making agent normally has moral primacy for African Americans. These examples draw on both justice and care perspectives to clarify the possibilities of human development and social change through highly developed human agency.

10 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Curtis-Tweed (2003) maintained that “to form a sense of agency, people of African descent must rely on self-perceptions, independent of the images reflected by the dominant culture or by those who shape the dominant culture” (p....

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  • ...Curtis-Tweed (2003) maintained that “to form a sense of agency, people of African descent must rely on self-perceptions, independent of the images reflected by the dominant culture or by those who shape the dominant culture” (p. 401)....

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04 Sep 2000

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study identified barriers to the use of community‐derived success constructs, opportunities for collaboration between community members and service agencies in the development of programs, and the feasibility of incorporating success constructs into program development and delivery.
Abstract: A Delphi technique was used to assess service provider and community consensus on program elements essential for promoting the success of at-risk African American youth. The respondent group consisted of 54 subjects representing three broad groups: service agencies, community leaders and members, and school system participants. The study identified barriers to the use of community-derived success constructs, opportunities for collaboration between community members and service agencies in the development of programs, and the feasibility of incorporating success constructs into program development and delivery. Although consensus was achieved on key issues, individual variations between counties point to the necessity of targeting intervention programs to the unique problems and expectations found in each community.

10 citations


"Poetic Expressions: Students of Col..." refers background or methods or result in this paper

  • ...One of the key factors of resiliency among youth of color is that they not only have a positive self-image of themselves, but they also find emotional security with others (Spitler et al., 2002)....

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  • ...221Volume 18 ✤ Number 2 ✤ Winter 2007 In their study of social barriers and resources in the lives of at-risk African American youth, Spitler et al. (2002) maintained that adolescents are more likely to achieve personal success when they have supportive relationships with family members and other…...

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  • ...Spitler et al. (2002) affirmed that adolescent involvement in both formal and informal community support groups is a significant factor in building resiliency, because young people can gain multiple supportive resources to guide them in making smooth transitions from adolescence into adulthood....

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  • ...As previously discussed, the supportive nature of nonfamilial relationships act as a protective barrier, as well as a determinant of success for African American adolescents (Hill, 1998; Spitler et al., 2002)....

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  • ...These outcomes are consistent with Hill (1998) and Spitler et al. (2002) who regard supportive, nonfamilial relationships as a major protective barrier for at-risk African American and Latino youth....

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04 Dec 2000

2 citations