scispace - formally typeset
Open accessMonographDOI: 10.1596/1813-9450-9563

Policy Choices Can Help Keep 4G and 5G Universal Broadband Affordable

02 Mar 2021-arXiv: General Economics (World Bank, Washington, DC)-
Abstract: The United Nations Broadband Commission has committed the international community to accelerate universal broadband. However, the cost of meeting this objective, and the feasibility of doing so on a commercially viable basis, are not well understood. Using scenario analysis, this paper compares the global cost-effectiveness of different infrastructure strategies for the developing world to achieve universal 4G or 5G mobile broadband. Utilizing remote sensing and demand forecasting, least-cost network designs are developed for eight representative low and middle-income countries (Malawi, Uganda, Kenya, Senegal, Pakistan, Albania, Peru and Mexico), the results from which form the basis for aggregation to the global level. The cost of meeting a minimum 10 Mbps per user is estimated at USD 1.7 trillion using 5G Non-Standalone, approximately 0.6% of annual GDP for the developing world over the next decade. However, by creating a favorable regulatory environment, governments can bring down these costs by as much as three quarters, to USD 0.5 trillion (approximately 0.2% of annual GDP), and avoid the need for public subsidy. Providing governments make judicious choices, adopting fiscal and regulatory regimes conducive to lowering costs, universal broadband may be within reach of most developing countries over the next decade.

... read more

Topics: Mobile broadband (53%), Subsidy (51%)
Citations
  More

9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2139/SSRN.2766252
Abstract: Mobile internet access allows for flexibility with respect to working time and working place. We analyse whether employees’ use of mobile internet access improves firms’ labour productivity. Our data set contains 2143 German firms and refers to the year 2014, when high-speed mobile internet was still at a relatively early stage of diffusion within firms. The econometric analysis shows that firms’ labour productivity significantly increases with the share of employees with mobile internet access. Our instrumental variables approach reveals that mobile internet use does cause higher labour productivity.

... read more

Topics: Productivity (53%)

45 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of mobile phones on farmers’ marketing decisions (spatial arbitrage, buyer’s choice, frequency of selling, and size of transaction) and prices they receive based on household and village level information collected from rural Ethiopia. It explains the reason for the weak impact of mobile phones observed in this study as well as in previous studies in Africa. We argue that even though many farmers participate in information searching, the number of farmers who use mobile phones for information searching is very small. The reason for such low use of mobile phones for information searching seems lack of quality information that can be accessed through mobile phones.

... read more

Topics: Agricultural marketing (58%)

24 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TELE.2021.101622
Abstract: Approximately half of the global population does not have access to the internet, even though digital connectivity can reduce poverty by revolutionizing economic development opportunities. Due to a lack of data, Mobile Network Operators and governments struggle to effectively determine if infrastructure investments are viable, especially in greenfield areas where demand is unknown. This leads to a lack of investment in network infrastructure, resulting in a phenomenon commonly referred to as the ‘digital divide’. In this paper we present a machine learning method that uses publicly available satellite imagery to predict telecoms demand metrics, including cell phone adoption and spending on mobile services, and apply the method to Malawi and Ethiopia. Our predictive machine learning approach consistently outperforms baseline models which use population density or nightlight luminosity, with an improvement in data variance prediction of at least 40%. The method is a starting point for developing more sophisticated predictive models of infrastructure demand using machine learning and publicly available satellite imagery. The evidence produced can help to better inform infrastructure investment and policy decisions.

... read more

Topics: Digital divide (51%), Phone (51%), Cellular network (50%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Edward J. Oughton1, Jatin Mathur2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Approximately half of the global population does not have access to the internet, even though digital connectivity can reduce poverty by revolutionizing economic development opportunities. Due to a lack of data, Mobile Network Operators and governments struggle to effectively determine if infrastructure investments are viable, especially in greenfield areas where demand is unknown. This leads to a lack of investment in network infrastructure, resulting in a phenomenon commonly referred to as the `digital divide`. In this paper we present a machine learning method that uses publicly available satellite imagery to predict telecoms demand metrics, including cell phone adoption and spending on mobile services, and apply the method to Malawi and Ethiopia. Our predictive machine learning approach consistently outperforms baseline models which use population density or nightlight luminosity, with an improvement in data variance prediction of at least 40%. The method is a starting point for developing more sophisticated predictive models of infrastructure demand using machine learning and publicly available satellite imagery. The evidence produced can help to better inform infrastructure investment and policy decisions.

... read more

Topics: Phone (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Internet access is essential for economic development and helping to deliver the Sustainable Development Goals, especially as even basic broadband can revolutionize available economic opportunities Yet, more than one billion people still live without internet access Governments must make strategic choices to connect these citizens, but currently have few independent, transparent and scientifically reproducible assessments to rely on This paper develops open-source software to test broadband universal service strategies which meet the 10 Mbps target being considered by the UN Broadband Commission The private and government costs of different infrastructure decisions are quantified in six East and West African countries (Cote D`Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) The results provide strong evidence that `leapfrogging` straight to 4G in unconnected areas is the least-cost option for providing broadband universal service, with savings between 13-51% over 3G The results also demonstrate how the extraction of spectrum and tax revenues in unviable markets provide no net benefit, as for every $1 taken in revenue, a $1 infrastructure subsidy is required from government to achieve broadband universal service Importantly, the use of a Shared Rural Network in unviable locations provides impressive cost savings (up to 78%), while retaining the benefits of dynamic infrastructure competition in viable urban and suburban areas This paper provides evidence to design national and international policies aimed at broadband universal service

... read more

Topics: Broadband universal service (67%), Internet access (59%), Subsidy (51%) ... show more

2 Citations


References
  More

109 results found



Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We estimate the effect of broadband infrastructure, which enables high-speed internet, on economic growth in the panel of OECD countries in 1996-2007. Our instrumental-variable model derives its non-linear first stage from a logistic diffusion model where pre-existing voice-telephony and cable-TV networks predict maximum broadband penetration. We find that a 10 percentage-point increase in broadband penetration raises annual per-capita growth by 0.9-1.5 percentage points. Results are robust to country and year fixed effects and controlling for linear second-stage effects of our instruments. We verify that our instruments predict broadband penetration but not diffusion of contemporaneous technologies like mobile telephony and computers.

... read more

Topics: Internet access (55%), Broadband (51%)

636 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1468-0297.2011.02420.X
Abstract: We estimate the effect of broadband infrastructure, which enables high-speed internet, on economic growth in the panel of OECD countries in 1996-2007. Our instrumental variable model derives its non-linear first stage from a logistic diffusion model where pre-existing voice telephony and cable TV networks predict maximum broadband penetration. We find that a 10 percentage point increase in broadband penetration raised annual per capita growth by 0.9-1.5 percentage points. Results are robust to country and year fixed effects and controlling for linear second-stage effects of our instruments. We verify that our instruments predict broadband penetration but not diffusion of contemporaneous technologies like mobile telephony and computers.

... read more

Topics: Broadband (53%)

588 Citations


Open accessBook
Brian Everitt1, Torsten Hothorn1Institutions (1)
17 Feb 2006-
Abstract: An Introduction to R What Is R? Installing R Help and Documentation Data Objects in R Data Import and Export Basic Data Manipulation Computing with Data Organizing an Analysis Data Analysis Using Graphical Displays Introduction Initial Data Analysis Analysis Using R Simple Inference Introduction Statistical Tests Analysis Using R Conditional Inference Introduction Conditional Test Procedures Analysis Using R Analysis of Variance Introduction Analysis of Variance Analysis Using R Simple and Multiple Linear Regression Introduction Simple Linear Regression Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Using R Logistic Regression and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Logistic Regression and Generalized Linear Models Analysis Using R Density Estimation Introduction Density Estimation Analysis Using R Recursive Partitioning Introduction Recursive Partitioning Analysis Using R Scatterplot Smoothers and Generalized Additive Models Introduction Scatterplot Smoothers and Generalized Additive Models Analysis Using R Survival Analysis Introduction Survival Analysis Analysis Using R Analyzing Longitudinal Data I Introduction Analyzing Longitudinal Data Linear Mixed Effects Models Analysis Using R Prediction of Random Effects The Problem of Dropouts Analyzing Longitudinal Data II Introduction Methods for Nonnormal Distributions Analysis Using R: GEE Analysis Using R: Random Effects Simultaneous Inference and Multiple Comparisons Introduction Simultaneous Inference and Multiple Comparisons Analysis Using R Meta-Analysis Introduction Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Statistics of Meta-Analysis Analysis Using R Meta-Regression Publication Bias Principal Component Analysis Introduction Principal Component Analysis Analysis Using R Multidimensional Scaling Introduction Multidimensional Scaling Analysis Using R Cluster Analysis Introduction Cluster Analysis Analysis Using R Bibliography Index A Summary appears at the end of each chapter.

... read more

Topics: Linear regression (55%), Data analysis (52%), Generalized linear model (51%) ... show more

573 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WORLDDEV.2009.05.004
Megumi Muto1, Megumi Muto2, Takashi Yamano1Institutions (2)
01 Dec 2009-World Development
Abstract: Summary An increased information flow due to mobile phone network expansions is expected to reduce marketing costs of agricultural commodities We investigate this using panel data of 856 Ugandan households in 94 communities, where the number of communities covered by mobile phone networks increased from 41 to 87 between surveys in 2003 and 2005, respectively After the expansion of coverage, we find increased sales of banana in remote communities but not of maize The mobile phone coverage expansion seems to induce the market participation of farmers in remote areas who produce perishable crops

... read more

Topics: Mobile phone (56%), Panel data (53%), Domestic market (52%)

518 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20215
20201
20191
20152