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Journal ArticleDOI

Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion

01 Jan 2007-Cadernos De Saude Publica (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz)-Vol. 23

AbstractThis article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

Topics: Political ecology (62%), Ecological economics (60%), Sustainability (60%), Health promotion (55%), Public policy (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2012
Abstract: The hegemonic agrarian model in Brazil is based on crops for export that are intensive in mechanized technologies and in the use of pesticides. The country became the world largest pesticide consumer and is ranked as the market that will grow the most in the near future. The purpose of this article was to make a general assessment of the relationship between the Brazilian agrarian model and the impacts of pesticide use on health and environment. To confront these problems, we propose a research agenda that integrates the different sectors engaged in protecting health, environment, and also food safety and sovereignty. We evidenced and discussed the need to: give greater visibility to the impacts as well as socio-environmental and health costs of the predominant model, adopt economic instruments that will encourage the use of cleaner technologies and healthier production models compatible with family farming, discourage productive systems that offer more environmental and health risks, along with developing and implementing public policies based on advances in ecological economics and agroecology, with the participation of social movements, regulatory institutions, and research groups.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The characteristics of the Brazilian model of development, its impacts and conflicts within social, environmental and health fields are discussed and some elements that could be incorporated by a research agenda committed to the debate about the 'socioenvironmental crisis' are proposed.
Abstract: A realizacao da 1a Conferencia Nacional de Saude Ambiental, a ser realizada em dezembro de 2009, apresenta inumeros desafios ao campo da Saude Coletiva. Seus objetivos e eixos adotam conceitos-chave como desenvolvimento, sustentabilidade, processos de producao e consumo, a questao da democracia e das politicas publicas, revelando a abrangencia, a novidade e o forte carater interdisciplinar e intersetorial da Saude Ambiental. Ao resgatar e articular temas importantes para a Saude Coletiva, a conferencia aponta para a necessidade de refletirmos sobre os determinantes socioambientais da saude na atualidade, de forma a avancarmos na construcao de diretrizes e acoes de vigilância e promocao da saude. Este artigo discute as caracteristicas do modelo de desenvolvimento brasileiro, seus impactos e conflitos socioambientais e sanitarios. Usamos como referenciais teoricos e empiricos os acumulos provenientes dos campos da economia ecologica e da ecologia politica, assim como as experiencias de cooperacao junto a Rede Brasileira de Justica Ambiental e diversos movimentos sociais. Dois casos serao aprofundados, o do agronegocio e uso de agrotoxicos, e a expansao da cadeia siderurgica no pais. Ao final, elencamos alguns pontos para compor uma agenda da "crise" socioambiental.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article discusses the experience of the map of conflicts related to environmental injustices and health in Brazil and its potential contribution to international movements for environmental justice. Inventories and maps of environmental injustices are important instruments of struggle against injustice and racism, since they increase the visibility of populations, whose lives are threatened. The Brazilian map is published online since 2010 and was an initiative of FIOCRUZ, a public health and academic institution, and the NGO FASE, in cooperation with the Brazilian Network of Environmental Injustice (RBJA), created in 2001. Environmental justice arised in Brazil as a field of reflection and mobilization, and as a rallying point to identify the struggle of several groups and entities, such as rural and urban grassroots movements, indigenous peoples, traditional populations, and peasants affected by different hazards and risks, as well as environmentalists, trade unions, and scientists. Currently, the map has 570 emblematic environmental conflicts in all regions of Brazil. Many economic activities are causing the conflicts such as mining expansion, oil and gas extractions, infrastructure (roads, mega-dams), agribusiness, and pesticide pollution, often with the support of governmental institutions.

36 citations


Cites background from "Political ecology, ecological econo..."

  • ...In contrast, there is a plurality of demands, protests, and collective rights achievements which, through their joint coordination, produce subjectivities, platforms, agendas networks, and social movements wider than stakeholders (Porto and Martinez-Alier 2007), which are fundamental to social transformation....

    [...]

  • ...during the production or transport stage or, ultimately, the disposal of tailings (Porto and Martinez-Alier 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...…there is a plurality of demands, protests, and collective rights achievements which, through their joint coordination, produce subjectivities, platforms, agendas networks, and social movements wider than stakeholders (Porto and Martinez-Alier 2007), which are fundamental to social transformation....

    [...]

  • ...These occur in accordance with moments along the ‘‘commodity chain’’ from the material’s extraction or the production of energy used, during the production or transport stage or, ultimately, the disposal of tailings (Porto and Martinez-Alier 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...flicts in Latin America and Brazil has been recently discussed by some authors (de Molina and Toledo 2014; Porto and Martinez-Alier 2007)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Historical and conceptual aspects of those fields are described in a summarized manner, as well as some shared features and expected actions of the Health System, with emphasis to the role of Primary Health Care and to the importance of the dialogue with the social movement.
Abstract: This paper has the purpose of contributing to the discussion of the crossing areas between Environmental Health and Workers Health, in the Brazilian context of Labor, Production, Environment and Health. This paper emerges in the context of the current organizational changes of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS), with a major focus on Primary Health Care, having in mind, also, the preparation of the 1st National Environmental Health Conference (1 feminine CNSA) to be held in December of 2009. So, historical and conceptual aspects of those fields are described in a summarized manner, as well as some shared features and expected actions of the Health System, with emphasis to the role of Primary Health Care and to the importance of the dialogue with the social movement. Finally, some topics for a common agenda were identified by the authors.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The phenomenon of globalization and the increase in neo-extractivism in the global periphery intensify the search for new territories and natural resources for the economy, resulting in significant impacts on ecosystems and on the lives of vulnerable populations. It is considered that the environmental crisis imposes new challenges and requires an updating of the theoretical and methodological foundations of collective health and the social determinants of health. The scope of this paper is to present theoretical contributions to the construction of a critical socio-environmental approach from a review of the literature structured around previous work on the mapping of environmental conflicts, and conducting empirical studies in conflicting areas. The contributions of sociology, political ecology, postcolonial studies and geography is summarized for the discussion of the socio-environmental determinants of health, as well as experiences that integrate emancipatory knowledge, political subjects, resistances and alternatives for society.

25 citations


References
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Book
16 Oct 1990
Abstract: * List of Tables and Illustrations * Preface * Acknowledgments * List of Acronyms * 1. Environmentalism and Social Justice * Race Versus Class in Spatial Location * The Theoretical Basis of Environmental Conflict * Translating Concern into Action * Environmentalism and Civil Rights * A Note on the Research Approach * 2. Race, Class, and the Politics of Place * Consequences of Uneven Development * Endangered Environs * Growing Black Militancy * Waste-Facility Siting Disparities * 3. Dispute Resolution and Toxics: Case Studies * Defining and Defending Against a Threat * Houston's Northwood Manor Neighborhood * West Dallas (Texas) * Institute (West Virginia) * Alsen (Louisiana) * Emelle-Sumter County (Alabama) * Summary of Disputes and Resolutions * 4. The Environmental Justice Movement: Survey Results * Rating of Environmental Problems * Siting Conflict and the Question of Equity * Economic Versus Environmental Trade-Offs * Environmental Activism * 5. Environmental Racism Revisited * The Role of Racism * Unequal Protection * Environmental Apartheid * Louisiana as "Paradise" Lost * From American Dream to Nightmare * 6. Environmental Justice as a Working Model * Waiting for Government Action * Impetus for Changing the System * Executive Order 12898 * Remedying Past Inequities * A Model Environmental Justice Framework * Winning at the Grass Roots * Relocation from "Mount Dioxin," * Citizens Against Nuclear Trash Chalk Up Major Victory * Corporate Welfare and Environmental Racism: The Case of Shintech * Conclusion * 7. Action Strategies for the Twenty-First Century * Lessons Learned * Mobilizing the Grass Roots * Toward the Politics of Inclusion * Conclusion * Notes * Selected Bibliography * Appendix: Resources and Contacts * Index

1,601 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Nancy Krieger1
TL;DR: This paper argues that the central question becomes: who and what is responsible for population patterns of health, disease, and well-being, as manifested in present, past and changing social inequalities in health?
Abstract: In social epidemiology, to speak of theory is simultaneously to speak of society and biology. It is, I will argue, to speak of embodiment. At issue is how we literally incorporate, biologically, the world around us, a world in which we simultaneously are but one biological species among many—and one whose labour and ideas literally have transformed the face of this earth. To conceptualize and elucidate the myriad social and biological processes resulting in embodiment and its manifestation in populations' epidemiological profiles, we need theory. This is because theory helps us structure our ideas, so as to explain causal connections between specified phenomena within and across specified domains by using interrelated sets of ideas whose plausibility can be tested by human action and thought.1–3 Grappling with notions of causation, in turn, raises not only complex philosophical issues but also, in the case of social epidemiology, issues of accountability and agency: simply invoking abstract notions of ‘society’ and disembodied ‘genes’ will not suffice. Instead, the central question becomes: who and what is responsible for population patterns of health, disease, and well-being, as manifested in present, past and changing social inequalities in health?

1,518 citations


Book
01 Jan 1996

1,036 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Summary “Societal metabolism” provides the appropriate conceptual basis for the rapidly growing development and analylical and policy interest in materials flow analysis (MFA). Following the review of the earlier intellectual background of societal metabolism in the first installment of this two-part article, this paper focuses on the current state of the art by examining more recent research referring t o societal metabolism in terms of material and substance flows. An operational classification of the literature according to frame of reference (socioeconomic system, ecosystem), system level (global, national, regional, functional, temporal), and types of flows under consideration (materials, energy, substances) highlights some of its characteristic features. There follows an integrated discussion of some of the major conceptual and methodological properties of MFA, with a particular focus on the field of bulk materials flows on a national level, comparing the major empirical results. Finally, the theoretical stringency research productivity, and political relevance of the MFA-related studies are assessed.

646 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1999-Futures
TL;DR: This work portrays these systems as Self-Organizing Holarchic Open (SOHO) systems and interpret their behaviours and structures with reference to non-equilibrium thermodynamics: holons, propensities and canons; and information and attractors.
Abstract: The dynamics of ecosystems and human systems need to be addressed in the context of post-normal science grounded in complex systems thinking. We portray these systems as Self-Organizing Holarchic Open (SOHO) systems and interpret their behaviours and structures with reference to non-equilibrium thermodynamics: holons, propensities and canons; and information and attractors. Given the phenomena exhibited by SOHO systems, conventional science approaches to modelling and forecasting are inappropriate, as are prevailing explanations in terms of linear causality and stochastic properties. Instead, narratives in the form of scenarios to depict morphogenetic causal loops, autocatalysis, and multiple possible pathways for development need to be considered. Short examples are given. We also link SOHO system descriptions to issues of human preferences and choices concerning the preferred attributes of particular SOHO systems, and to the implications for achieving them through adaptive management, monitoring and appropriate structures for governance. A heuristic framework to guide reasoning for this is presented, and reiterative steps for applying it are identified. In this way we provide a coherent conceptual basis, in the workings of both natural systems and decision systems, for the practice of post-normal science.

483 citations