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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-021-00801-6

Population-scale single-cell RNA-seq profiling across dopaminergic neuron differentiation

04 Mar 2021-Nature Genetics (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 53, Iss: 3, pp 304-312
Abstract: Studying the function of common genetic variants in primary human tissues and during development is challenging. To address this, we use an efficient multiplexing strategy to differentiate 215 human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines toward a midbrain neural fate, including dopaminergic neurons, and use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile over 1 million cells across three differentiation time points. The proportion of neurons produced by each cell line is highly reproducible and is predictable by robust molecular markers expressed in pluripotent cells. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) were characterized at different stages of neuronal development and in response to rotenone-induced oxidative stress. Of these, 1,284 eQTL colocalize with known neurological trait risk loci, and 46% are not found in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) catalog. Our study illustrates how coupling scRNA-seq with long-term iPSC differentiation enables mechanistic studies of human trait-associated genetic variants in otherwise inaccessible cell states.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TIG.2020.08.009
01 Feb 2021-Trends in Genetics
Abstract: Most disease-associated variants, although located in putatively regulatory regions, do not have detectable effects on gene expression. One explanation could be that we have not examined gene expression in the cell types or conditions that are most relevant for disease. Even large-scale efforts to study gene expression across tissues are limited to human samples obtained opportunistically or postmortem, mostly from adults. In this review we evaluate recent findings and suggest an alternative strategy, drawing on the dynamic and highly context-specific nature of gene regulation. We discuss new technologies that can extend the standard regulatory mapping framework to more diverse, disease-relevant cell types and states.

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41 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41587-021-00895-7
Abstract: The development of single-cell multimodal assays provides a powerful tool for investigating multiple dimensions of cellular heterogeneity, enabling new insights into development, tissue homeostasis and disease. A key challenge in the analysis of single-cell multimodal data is to devise appropriate strategies for tying together data across different modalities. The term ‘data integration’ has been used to describe this task, encompassing a broad collection of approaches ranging from batch correction of individual omics datasets to association of chromatin accessibility and genetic variation with transcription. Although existing integration strategies exploit similar mathematical ideas, they typically have distinct goals and rely on different principles and assumptions. Consequently, new definitions and concepts are needed to contextualize existing methods and to enable development of new methods. As the number of single-cell experiments with multiple data modalities increases, Argelaguet and colleagues review the concepts and challenges of data integration.

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Topics: Tissue homeostasis (54%), Data integration (54%)

24 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-021-00800-7
Marc Jan Bonder1, Marc Jan Bonder2, Craig Smail3, Craig Smail4  +24 moreInstitutions (9)
04 Mar 2021-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are an established cellular system to study the impact of genetic variants in derived cell types and developmental contexts. However, in their pluripotent state, the disease impact of genetic variants is less well known. Here, we integrate data from 1,367 human iPSC lines to comprehensively map common and rare regulatory variants in human pluripotent cells. Using this population-scale resource, we report hundreds of new colocalization events for human traits specific to iPSCs, and find increased power to identify rare regulatory variants compared with somatic tissues. Finally, we demonstrate how iPSCs enable the identification of causal genes for rare diseases.

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16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-021-00924-W
06 Sep 2021-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Many gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies have published their summary statistics, which can be used to gain insight into complex human traits by downstream analyses, such as fine mapping and co-localization. However, technical differences between these datasets are a barrier to their widespread use. Consequently, target genes for most genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals have still not been identified. In the present study, we present the eQTL Catalogue ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/eqtl ), a resource of quality-controlled, uniformly re-computed gene expression and splicing QTLs from 21 studies. We find that, for matching cell types and tissues, the eQTL effect sizes are highly reproducible between studies. Although most QTLs were shared between most bulk tissues, we identified a greater diversity of cell-type-specific QTLs from purified cell types, a subset of which also manifested as new disease co-localizations. Our summary statistics are freely available to enable the systematic interpretation of human GWAS associations across many cell types and tissues.

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10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-021-00909-9
Xin Sheng1, Yuting Guan1, Ziyuan Ma1, Junnan Wu1  +17 moreInstitutions (7)
12 Aug 2021-Nature Genetics
Abstract: The functional interpretation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging due to the cell-type-dependent influences of genetic variants. Here, we generated comprehensive maps of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for 659 microdissected human kidney samples and identified cell-type-eQTLs by mapping interactions between cell type abundances and genotypes. By partitioning heritability using stratified linkage disequilibrium score regression to integrate GWAS with single-cell RNA sequencing and single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing data, we prioritized proximal tubules for kidney function and endothelial cells and distal tubule segments for blood pressure pathogenesis. Bayesian colocalization analysis nominated more than 200 genes for kidney function and hypertension. Our study clarifies the mechanism of commonly used antihypertensive and renal-protective drugs and identifies drug repurposing opportunities for kidney disease.

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9 Citations


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75 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2008/10/P10008
Abstract: We propose a simple method to extract the community structure of large networks. Our method is a heuristic method that is based on modularity optimization. It is shown to outperform all other known community detection methods in terms of computation time. Moreover, the quality of the communities detected is very good, as measured by the so-called modularity. This is shown first by identifying language communities in a Belgian mobile phone network of 2 million customers and by analysing a web graph of 118 million nodes and more than one billion links. The accuracy of our algorithm is also verified on ad hoc modular networks.

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Topics: Modularity (networks) (67%), Clique percolation method (62%), Girvan–Newman algorithm (57%) ... read more

11,078 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1530509100
John D. Storey, Robert Tibshirani1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the increase in genomewide experiments and the sequencing of multiple genomes, the analysis of large data sets has become commonplace in biology. It is often the case that thousands of features in a genomewide data set are tested against some null hypothesis, where a number of features are expected to be significant. Here we propose an approach to measuring statistical significance in these genomewide studies based on the concept of the false discovery rate. This approach offers a sensible balance between the number of true and false positives that is automatically calibrated and easily interpreted. In doing so, a measure of statistical significance called the q value is associated with each tested feature. The q value is similar to the well known p value, except it is a measure of significance in terms of the false discovery rate rather than the false positive rate. Our approach avoids a flood of false positive results, while offering a more liberal criterion than what has been used in genome scans for linkage.

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Topics: False positive paradox (65%), False positive rate (62%), Multiple comparisons problem (60%) ... read more

8,626 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/81834
Ranjita Betarbet1, Todd B. Sherer1, G MacKenzie1, M Garcia-Osuna1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, but epidemiological studies suggest an association with pesticides and other environmental toxins, and biochemical studies implicate a systemic defect in mitochondrial complex I. We report that chronic, systemic inhibition of complex I by the lipophilic pesticide, rotenone, causes highly selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration that is associated behaviorally with hypokinesia and rigidity. Nigral neurons in rotenone-treated rats accumulate fibrillar cytoplasmic inclusions that contain ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein. These results indicate that chronic exposure to a common pesticide can reproduce the anatomical, neurochemical, behavioral and neuropathological features of PD.

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Topics: Parkinson's disease (54%)

3,261 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE24277
12 Oct 2017-Nature
Abstract: Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression levels across individuals and diverse tissues of the human body, many of which are not easily accessible. Here we describe genetic effects on gene expression levels across 44 human tissues. We find that local genetic variation affects gene expression levels for the majority of genes, and we further identify inter-chromosomal genetic effects for 93 genes and 112 loci. On the basis of the identified genetic effects, we characterize patterns of tissue specificity, compare local and distal effects, and evaluate the functional properties of the genetic effects. We also demonstrate that multi-tissue, multi-individual data can be used to identify genes and pathways affected by human disease-associated variation, enabling a mechanistic interpretation of gene regulation and the genetic basis of disease.

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2,449 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13059-017-1382-0
06 Feb 2018-Genome Biology
Abstract: Scanpy is a scalable toolkit for analyzing single-cell gene expression data. It includes methods for preprocessing, visualization, clustering, pseudotime and trajectory inference, differential expression testing, and simulation of gene regulatory networks. Its Python-based implementation efficiently deals with data sets of more than one million cells ( https://github.com/theislab/Scanpy ). Along with Scanpy, we present AnnData, a generic class for handling annotated data matrices ( https://github.com/theislab/anndata ).

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1,524 Citations


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