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Journal ArticleDOI

Posthepatectomy bile leakage: how to manage.

01 Jan 2012-Digestive Surgery (Karger Publishers)-Vol. 29, Iss: 1, pp 48-53

TL;DR: The incidence of posthepatectomy biliary leakage has decreased over time, while PTD and endoscopic stenting are effective treatment modalities.

AbstractBackground: Biliary leakage after liver resection continues to be reported. Management of bile leakage has changed in recent years, with nowadays non-surgical procedures as the preferred treatment. Methods: Biliary leakage and management were assessed in 381 patients who underwent liver resection between January 2005 and April 2011. Results: The overall rate of biliary leakage after liver resection was 5.0%, with a higher incidence in patients who had undergone concomitant hepaticojejunostomy (HJ; 13.6 vs. 3.2%). Hospital stay (p = 0.047), major resections (p = 0.018), operation time (p = 0.011), and relaparotomy (p = 0.002) were risk factors for postoperative bile leakage. Multivariate analysis identified relaparotomy as an independent factor (OR 4.216, p = 0.034). Bile leakage in patients without HJ (n = 10) was managed in 6 patients by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTD), and in 3 patients by endoscopic drainage. One patient was treated surgically. All patients with an HJ and postoperative bile leakage (n = 9) underwent PTD. Conclusion: The incidence of posthepatectomy biliary leakage has decreased over time, while PTD and endoscopic stenting are effective treatment modalities. PTD is the treatment of choice in bile leakage after resection combined with HJ.

Topics: Endoscopic stenting (52%), Hepatectomy (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of endoscopic therapy for leaks and fistulae after esophageal, gastric, bariatric, colonic, and pancreaticobiliary surgery examines endoscopic therapies for efficacy relative to surgical management.
Abstract: Endoscopic techniques for the treatment of postoperative fistulae and leaks are rapidly developing. Conventional surgical therapy for postsurgical leaks and fistulae is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel endoscopic therapies have demonstrated safety, despite the inherent challenges of intervention in this patient population, and are steadily building evidence for efficacy relative to surgical management. The article examines endoscopic therapy for leaks and fistulae after esophageal, gastric, bariatric, colonic, and pancreaticobiliary surgery.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts who underwent a PTBD procedure for the treatment of bile leakage between January 2000 and August 2012 were retrospectively assessed and PTBD was an effective treatment with low complication rates.
Abstract: Objective and Background: Bile leakage is a serious postoperative complication and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) may be an option when endoscopic treatment is not feasible. In this retrospective study, we established technical and clinical success rates as well as the complication rates of PTBD in a large group of patients with postoperative bile leakage. Methods: Data on all patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts who underwent a PTBD procedure for the treatment of bile leakage between January 2000 and August 2012 were retrospectively assessed. Data included type of surgery, site of bile leak, previous attempts of bile leak repair, interval between surgery and PTBD placement. Outcome measures were the technical and clinical success rates, the procedure-related complications, and mortality rate. Results: A total of 63 patients were identified; PTBD placement was technically successful in 90.5% (57/63) after one to three attempts. The clinical success rate was 69.8% (44/63). Four major complications were documented (4/63; 6.3%): liver laceration, pneumothorax, pleural empyema, and prolonged hemobilia. One minor complication involved pain. Conclusions: PTBD is an effective treatment with low complication rates for the management of postsurgical bile leaks in patients with nondilated bile ducts.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: After LMH, BL occurred in 13.5 % of the patients and was associated with significant morbidity, and patients with one or several risk factors for BL should benefit intra-operative drain placement.
Abstract: Bile leakage (BL) remains a common cause of major morbidity after open major liver resection but has only been poorly described in patients undergoing laparoscopic major hepatectomy (LMH). The present study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and consequences of BL following LMH. All 223 patients undergoing LMH between 2000 and 2013 at two tertiary referral centres were retrospectively analysed. BL was defined according to the International Study Group of Liver Surgery, and its incidence and consequences were assessed. Risk factors for BL were determined on multivariate analysis. BL occurred in 30 (13.5 %) patients, and its incidence remained stable over time (p = 0.200). BL was diagnosed following the presence of bile into the abdominal drain in 14 (46.7 %) patients and after drainage of symptomatic abdominal collections in 16 (53.3 %) patients without intra-operative drain placement. Grade A, B and C BL occurred in 3 (10.0 %), 23 (76.6 %) and 4 (13.4 %) cases, respectively. Interventional procedures for BL included endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, percutaneous and surgical drainage in 10 (33.3 %), 23 (76.7 %) and 4 (13.3 %) patients, respectively. BL was associated with significantly increased rates of symptomatic pleural effusion (30.0 vs. 11.4 %, p = 0.006), multiorgan failure (13.3 vs. 3.6 %, p = 0.022), postoperative death (10.0 vs. 1.6 %, p = 0.008) and prolonged hospital stay (18 vs. 8 days, p 28 kg/m2 (OR 2.439, 95 % CI 1.878–2.771, p = 0.036), history of hepatectomy (OR 1.675, 95 % CI 1.256–2.035, p = 0.044) and biliary reconstruction (OR 1.975, 95 % CI 1.452–2.371, p = 0.039) were significantly associated with increased risk of BL. After LMH, BL occurred in 13.5 % of the patients and was associated with significant morbidity. Patients with one or several risk factors for BL should benefit intra-operative drain placement.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2019-Hpb
TL;DR: Risk-adjusted BMVs are likely much more applicable and appropriate in assessing "acceptable" benchmark outcomes following liver surgery as well as other factors influence the risk of complications following hepatectomy.
Abstract: Background The best achievable short-term outcomes after liver surgery have not been identified. Several factors may influence the post-operative course of patients undergoing hepatectomy increasing the risk of post-operative complications. We sought to identify risk-adjusted benchmark values [BMV] for liver surgery. Methods The National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to develop Bayesian models to estimate risk-adjusted BMVs for overall and liver related (post-hepatectomy liver failure [PHLF], biliary leakage [BL]) complications. A separate international multi-institutional database was used to validate the risk-adjusted BMVs. Results Among the 11,243 patients included in the NSQIP database, the incidence of complications, PHLF, and BL was 36%, 5%, and 8%, respectively. The risk-adjusted BMVs for complication (range, 16–72%), PHLF (range, 1%–20%), and BL (range, 4%–22%) demonstrated a high variability based on patients characteristics. When tested using an international database including nine institutes, the risk-adjusted BMVs for complications ranged from 26% (Institute-4) to 43% (Institute-1), BMVs for PHLF between 3% (Institute-3) and 12% (Institute-5), while BMVs for BL ranged between 5% (Institute-4) and 9% (Institute-7). Conclusions Multiple factors influence the risk of complications following hepatectomy. Risk-adjusted BMVs are likely much more applicable and appropriate in assessing “acceptable” benchmark outcomes following liver surgery.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may have an essential role in the management of acute biliary complications.
Abstract: Acute biliary complications may result from several medical conditions such as gallstone pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, acute cholecystitis, bile leak, liver abscess and hepatic trauma. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. About 25% of theses patients will develop clinically severe acute pancreatitis, usually due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Choledocholithiasis, malignant and benign biliary strictures, and stent dysfunction may cause partial or complete obstruction and infection in the biliary tract with acute cholangitis. Bile leaks are most commonly associated with hepatobiliary surgeries or invasive procedures such as open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, hepatic resection, hepatic transplantation, liver biopsy, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may have an essential role in the management of these complications.

16 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The new complication classification appears reliable and may represent a compelling tool for quality assessment in surgery in all parts of the world.
Abstract: Growing demand for health care, rising costs, constrained resources, and evidence of variations in clinical practice have triggered interest in measuring and improving the quality of health care delivery. For a valuable quality assessment, relevant data on outcome must be obtained in a standardized and reproducible manner to allow comparison among different centers, between different therapies and within a center over time.1–3 Objective and reliable outcome data are increasingly requested by patients and payers (government or private insurance) to assess quality and costs of health care. Moreover, health policy makers point out that the availability of comparative data on individual hospital's and physician's performance represents a powerful market force, which may contribute to limit the costs of health care while improving quality.4 Conclusive assessments of surgical procedures remain limited by the lack of consensus on how to define complications and to stratify them by severity.1,5–8 In 1992, we proposed general principles to classify complications of surgery based on a therapy-oriented, 4-level severity grading.1 Subsequently, the severity grading was refined and applied to compare the results of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy9 and liver transplantation.10 This classification has also been used by others11–13 and was recently suggested to serve as the basis to assess the outcome of living related liver transplantation in the United States (J. Trotter, personal communication). However, the classification system has not yet been widely used in the surgical literature. The strength of the previous classification relied on the principle of grading complications based on the therapy used to treat the complication. This approach allows identification of most complications and prevents down-rating of major negative outcomes. This is particularly important in retrospective analyses. However, we felt that modifications were necessary, particularly in grading life-threatening complications and long-term disability due to a complication. We also felt that the duration of the hospital stay can no longer be used as a criterion to grade complications. Although definitions of negative outcomes rely to a large extend on subjective “value” appraisals, the grading system must be tested in a large cohort of patients. Finally, a classification is useful only if widely accepted and applied throughout different countries and surgical cultures. Such a validation was not done with the previous classification. Therefore, the aim of the current study was 3-fold: first, to propose an improved classification of surgical complications based on our experience gained with the previous classification1; second, to test this classification in a large cohort of patients who underwent general surgery; and third, to assess the reproducibility and acceptability of the classification through an international survey.

18,696 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2011-Surgery
TL;DR: A uniform definition and severity grading of bile leakage is proposed to enable a standardized comparison of the results of different clinical trials and may facilitate an objective evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the field of hepatobiliary and pancreatic operative therapy.
Abstract: Background Despite the potentially severe impact of bile leakage on patients’ perioperative and long-term outcome, a commonly used definition of this complication after hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations has not yet been established. The aim of the present article is to propose a uniform definition and severity grading of bile leakage after hepatobiliary and pancreatic operative therapy. Methods An international study group of hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgeons was convened. A consensus definition of bile leakage after hepatobiliary and pancreatic operative therapy was developed based on the postoperative course of bilirubin concentrations in patients’ serum and drain fluid. Results After evaluation of the postoperative course of bilirubin levels in the drain fluid of patients who underwent hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, bile leakage was defined as bilirubin concentration in the drain fluid at least 3 times the serum bilirubin concentration on or after postoperative day 3 or as the need for radiologic or operative intervention resulting from biliary collections or bile peritonitis. Using this criterion severity of bile leakage was classified according to its impact on patients’ clinical management. Grade A bile leakage causes no change in patients’ clinical management. A Grade B bile leakage requires active therapeutic intervention but is manageable without relaparotomy, whereas in Grade C, bile leakage relaparotomy is required. Conclusion We propose a simple definition and severity grading of bile leakage after hepatobiliary and pancreatic operative therapy. The application of the present proposal will enable a standardized comparison of the results of different clinical trials and may facilitate an objective evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the field of hepatobiliary and pancreatic operative therapy.

908 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with bile leakage from the hepatic hilum and postoperative uncontrollable ascites tend to have a poor prognosis, especially when a high-risk surgical procedure is performed in patients with liver cirrhosis, and more careful surgical procedures and use of an intraoperative biles leakage test are recommended.
Abstract: Because of recent advances in liver surgery, hepatic resections are being performed with increasing frequency, and the surgical death rate for such resections is decreasing. 1–7 Bile leakage, of course, is the primary complication occurring after liver surgery, and it can not only debase the quality of the postoperative course of patients, but also can lead to hospital death. Despite a significant decrease in the overall surgical complication rate in hepatic resections, the rate of bile leakage has not changed, with an incidence of 4.8% to 7.6% reported in recent large series. 2–8 The presence of bile, blood, and devitalized tissues in the dead space after hepatectomy may provide the ideal environment for bacterial growth and impair the normal host defense mechanisms. 9, 10 The combination of sudden reduction in the liver volume and development of an intraperitoneal septic complication after hepatectomy (IPSCH) frequently results in liver failure, leading to a grave prognosis. 11 The aims of this study were, therefore, to clarify the perioperative risk factors for postoperative bile leakage after hepatic resection, to evaluate the intraoperative bile leakage test as a preventive measure, and to propose a treatment strategy for postoperative bile leakage according to the outcome of these patients.

286 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hematectomies including segment 4, especially if performed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, lead to a high risk for postoperative bile leakage, and intraoperative use of fibrin glue may reduce the risk of postoperativebile leakage.
Abstract: Hypothesis The knowledge of risk factors for bile leakage after liver resection could reduce its incidence. Design Retrospective study. Setting Tertiary care referral center. Patients The study included 610 patients who underwent liver resection from January 1, 1989, through January 31, 2003. Interventions Liver resections without biliary anastomoses. Main Outcome Measures Bile leakage incidence and its correlation to preoperative and intraoperative patient characteristics. Results Postoperative bile leakage occurred in 22 (3.6%) of 610 patients. Univariate analysis showed that cirrhosis ( P = .05) or intraoperative use of fibrin glue ( P = .01) was associated with a lower incidence of bile leakage. Moreover, the following factors were significant predictors of bile leakage: peripheral cholangiocarcinoma ( P P = .03), left hepatectomy extended to segment 1 ( P P = .006), and hepatectomy including segment 1 ( P = .001) or segment 4 ( P = .003). At multivariate analysis, use of fibrin glue was an independent protective factor (relative risk = 0.38, P = .046), whereas peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (relative risk = 5.47, P = .02) and resection of segment 4 (relative risk = 3.10, P = .02) were independent risk factors for bile leakage. Conclusions Hepatectomies including segment 4, especially if performed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, lead to a high risk for postoperative bile leakage. Intraoperative use of fibrin glue may reduce the risk of postoperative bile leakage.

189 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Bile leakage is one of the frequent and disturbing complications of hepatic resection. Study design Clinical records of the 363 patients who underwent hepatic resections without biliary reconstruction for hepatic cancers between January 1994 and June 2001 were reviewed. Postoperative bile leakage was defined as continuous drainage with a bilirubin concentration of 20 mg/dL or 1,500 mg/d lasting 2 days. Leakage that continued longer than 2 weeks or that required surgical intervention was defined as uncontrollable. Differences in incidence and frequency of uncontrollable leakage for the different types of hepatic resection, tumors, and underlying liver disease were investigated. Outcomes after treatment for uncontrollable bile leakage were also reviewed. Results Postoperative bile leakage occurred in 26 of 363 patients (7.2%). Although the incidence in patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma (3/9 [33%]) was higher (p = 0.03) than in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, rates of occurrence were similar among the different types of hepatic resection and underlying liver disease. Eight of the 26 patients (31%) had uncontrollable leakage. Two patients required reoperation to control leakage; one of these developed hepatic failure and died 2 months after surgery. Four patients underwent endoscopic nasobiliary drainage 21 to 34 days after hepatectomy, and the leakage resolved within 3 to 21 days. Fibrin glue sealing was effective in two patients whose leaking bile ducts were not connected to the common bile duct. Conclusions Although meticulous surgical technique can minimize the risk of postoperative bile leakage, some instances of leakage are unavoidable. Nonsurgical treatments, such as nasobiliary drainage or fibrin glue sealing, are preferable to reoperation.

157 citations


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