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Journal ArticleDOI

Potential of Depth-of-Interaction-Based Detection Time Correction in Cherenkov Emitter Crystals for TOF-PET

01 Mar 2023-IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences (IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences)-Vol. 7, Iss: 3, pp 233-240
TL;DR: In this paper , depth-of-interaction (DOI) correction was proposed to mitigate the time-jitter due to the photon time spread in Cherenkov-based radiation detectors.
Abstract: Cherenkov light can improve the timing resolution of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radiation detectors, thanks to its prompt emission. Coincidence time resolutions (CTR) of ~30 ps were recently reported when using 3.2 mm-thick Cherenkov emitters. However, sufficient detection efficiency requires thicker crystals, causing the timing resolution to be degraded by the optical propagation inside the crystal. We report on depth-of-interaction (DOI) correction to mitigate the time-jitter due to the photon time spread in Cherenkov-based radiation detectors. We simulated the Cherenkov and scintillation light generation and propagation in 3 × 3 mm2 lead fluoride, lutetium oxyorthosilicate, bismuth germanate, thallium chloride, and thallium bromide. Crystal thicknesses varied from 9 to 18 mm with a 3-mm step. A DOI-based time correction showed a 2-to-2.5-fold reduction of the photon time spread across all materials and thicknesses. Results showed that highly refractive crystals, though producing more Cherenkov photons, were limited by an experimentally obtained high-cutoff wavelength and refractive index, restricting the propagation and extraction of Cherenkov photons mainly emitted at shorter wavelengths. Correcting the detection time using DOI information shows a high potential to mitigate the photon time spread. These simulations highlight the complexity of Cherenkov-based detectors and the competing factors in improving timing resolution.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a brief review of the original discovery of the radiation and the physical principles of the process that gives rise to it is given, followed by an elementary account of the theory of the effect.
Abstract: The paper opens with a brief review of the original discovery of the radiation and the physical principles of the process that gives rise to it. This is followed by an elementary account of the theory of the effect. A general survey of the practical applications to cosmic-ray and high-energy physics is then presented, with two examples of modern detectors discussed in greater detail. The article concludes with an account of recent experiments carried out on light pulses from the night-sky associated with cosmic-ray showers, found to be due to Cerenkov radiation in the atmosphere.

678 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Biograph Vision outperforms the analog Biograph mCT Flow, and the system is able to meet European harmonizing performance standards.
Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of the Biograph Vision digital PET/CT system according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard (published by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association [NEMA]) to allow for a reliable, reproducible, and intersystem-comparable performance measurement. Methods: The new digital PET/CT system features silicon photomultiplier-based detectors with 3.2-mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals and full coverage of the scintillator area. The PET components incorporate 8 rings of 38 detector blocks, and each block contains 4 × 2 mini blocks. Each mini block consists of a 5 × 5 lutetium oxyorthosilicate array of 3.2 × 3.2 × 20 mm crystals coupled to a silicon photomultiplier array of 16 × 16 mm, resulting in an axial field of view of 26.1 cm. In this study, PET/CT system performance was evaluated for conformation with the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, with additional measurements described in the new NEMA NU 2-2018 standard. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, count-rate performance, accuracy of attenuation and scatter correction, image quality, coregistration accuracy, and time-of-flight performance were determined. Measurements were directly compared with results from its predecessor, the Biograph mCT Flow, using existing literature. Moreover, feasibility to comply with the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd. (EARL) criteria was evaluated, and some illustrative patient PET images were obtained. Results: The Biograph Vision showed a transverse and axial spatial resolution of 3.6 and 3.5 mm, respectively, in full width at half maximum at a 1-cm offset from the center of the field of view (measured with a 22Na 0.25-mm point source), a NEMA sensitivity of 16.4 kcps/MBq, and a NEMA peak noise-equivalent count-rate of 306 kcps at 32 kBq/mL. Time-of-flight resolution varied from 210 to 215 as count-rate increased up to the peak noise-equivalent count-rate. The overall image contrast seen with the NEMA image quality phantom ranged from 77.2% to 89.8%. Furthermore, the system was able to comply with the current and future EARL performance criteria. Conclusion: The Biograph Vision outperforms the analog Biograph mCT Flow, and the system is able to meet European harmonizing performance standards.

291 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the timing properties of lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and excited by 511 keV photons.
Abstract: We present measurements of the timing properties of lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and excited by 511 keV photons. These crystals have dimensions suitable for use in PET cameras (3/spl times/3/spl times/30 mm/sup 3/). Coincidence timing resolution of 475 ps fwhm is measured between detectors utilizing two such crystals, significantly worse than the 300 ps fwhm predicted based on first principles for small crystals and measured in 3 mm cubes. This degradation is found to be caused by the scintillation light undergoing multiple reflections at quasi-random angles within the scintillator crystal, which has two effects. First, it slows down the effective information propagation speed within the crystal (to an effective n/spl circ/=3.9-5.3). Since the incident annihilation photon travels with n=1, information from interactions at different depths arrives at the PMT with different time delays. Second, the random nature of the reflection angles (and path lengths) introduce dispersion and so a 10%-90% rise time of 1 ns to the optical signal.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The limits of BGO for ultrafast timing in TOF-PET with Monte Carlo simulations are predicted and the measured CTR of the various scintillators are summarized and discussed to discuss their intrinsic timing performance.
Abstract: Solid state photodetectors like silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are playing an important role in several fields of medical imaging, life sciences and high energy physics. They are able to sense optical photons with a single photon detection time precision below 100 ps, making them ideal candidates to read the photons generated by fast scintillators in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). By implementing novel high-frequency readout electronics, it is possible to perform a completely new evaluation of the best timing performance achievable with state-of-the-art analog-SiPMs and scintillation materials. The intrinsic SiPM single photon time resolution (SPTR) was measured with Ketek, HPK, FBK, SensL and Broadcom devices. Also, the best achieved coincidence time resolution (CTR) for these devices was measured with LSO:Ce:Ca of [Formula: see text] mm3 and [Formula: see text] mm3 size crystals. The intrinsic SPTR for all devices ranges between 70 ps and 135 ps FWHM when illuminating the entire [Formula: see text] mm2 or [Formula: see text] mm2 area. The obtained CTR with LSO:Ce:Ca of [Formula: see text] mm3 size ranges between 58 ps and 76 ps FWHM for the SiPMs evaluated. Bismuth Germanate (BGO), read out with state of-the-art NUV-HD SiPMs from FBK, achieved a CTR of 158 [Formula: see text] ps and 277 [Formula: see text] ps FWHM for [Formula: see text] mm3 and [Formula: see text] mm3 crystals, respectively. Other BGO geometries yielded 167 [Formula: see text] 3 ps FWHM for [Formula: see text] mm3 and 235 [Formula: see text] 5 ps FWHM for [Formula: see text] mm3 also coupled with Meltmount (n = 1.582) and wrapped in Teflon. Additionally, the average number of Cherenkov photons produced by BGO in each 511 keV event was measured to be 17 [Formula: see text] 3 photons. Based on this measurement, we predict the limits of BGO for ultrafast timing in TOF-PET with Monte Carlo simulations. Plastic scintillators (BC422, BC418), BaF2, GAGG:Ce codoped with Mg and CsI:undoped were also tested for TOF performance. Indeed, BC422 can achieve a CTR of 35 [Formula: see text] 2 ps FWHM using only Compton interactions in the detector with a maximum deposited energy of 340 keV. BaF2 with its fast cross-luminescence enables a CTR of 51 [Formula: see text] 5 ps FWHM when coupled to VUV-HD SiPMs from FBK, with only ∼22% photon detection efficiency (PDE). We summarize the measured CTR of the various scintillators and discuss their intrinsic timing performance.

142 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents the results of CTR measurements on two different SiPM technologies from FBK coupled to LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals, and demonstrates that a CTR of 140 ± 5 ps can be achieved for longer 2 × 2 × 20 mm(3) crystals, which can readily be implemented in the current generation PET systems to achieve the desired increase in the signal to noise ratio.
Abstract: The coincidence time resolution (CTR) becomes a key parameter of 511 keV gamma detection in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). This is because additional information obtained through timing leads to a better noise suppression and therefore a better signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed image. In this paper we present the results of CTR measurements on two different SiPM technologies from FBK coupled to LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals. We compare the measurements performed at two separate test setups, i.e. at CERN and at FBK, showing that the obtained results agree within a few percent. We achieve a best CTR value of 85 ± 4 ps FWHM for 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals, thus breaking the 100 ps barrier with scintillators similar to LSO:Ce or LYSO:Ce. We also demonstrate that a CTR of 140 ± 5 ps can be achieved for longer 2 × 2 × 20 mm(3) crystals, which can readily be implemented in the current generation PET systems to achieve the desired increase in the signal to noise ratio.

124 citations