Potential roles of biotic factors in regulating zooplankton community dynamics in jakarta bay shallow water coastal ecosystem
01 Jul 2012-Vol. 4, Iss: 1
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the relationship between zooplankton community dynamic and important biotic factors, such as predation and food availability, in Jakarta bay, from July to November 2009.
Abstract: The dynamics in zooplankton abundance were regulated by changes in water physical-chemical parameters and interaction with biotic factors. In this research we examined the relationship between zooplankton community dynamic and important biotic factors, such as predation and food availability, in Jakarta bay. Plankton samplings were done in 10 sampling stations in Jakarta bay, from July to November 2009. Zooplankton samples were collected using horizontal towing method with NORPAC plankton net (mesh size 300 μm). Salinity, water depth, water temperature, and water transparency were measured. Phytoplankton samples were also collected with the same method as zooplankton, using Kitahara plankton net (mesh size 80 μm). Zooplankton taxas were grouped into two groups, the prey and predatory zooplankton. The results showed that there were two different patterns in zooplankton groups dynamic i.e., the single and double peak. The abundance peak in most zooplankton groups, such as copepods, cirripeds, luciferids, and tunicates, were induced by the high food availability during the phytoplankton bloom in August. The high abundance of prey zooplankton groups in August was responded by the predatory zooplankton groups, resulting in high abundance of predatory zooplankton in adjacent month. The high abundance of ctenophores and chordates (fish larvae) were suggested as the main factor for the low abundance of other zooplankton in September. Physical and chemical factors were not the regulating factors due to the stability of those factors during this research period. Thus we concluded that food availability and predator-prey interaction were the main factors which regulate zooplankton community dynamics in Jakarta bay. Keywords: predator-prey interaction, zooplankton, abundance peak, food availability, phytoplankton bloom
TL;DR: The relationship of physicochemical paramaters of the water and the composition, diversity and abundance of zooplankton assemblage in the nearshore waters surrounding Iligan City were investigated.
Abstract: The relationship of physicochemical paramaters of the water and the composition, diversity and abundance of zooplankton assemblage in the nearshore waters surrounding Iligan City were investigated. Hydrological parameters assessed in the waters revealed values that are within the standard set by the Philippines Department of Natural Resources for marine fauna and flora to thrive and be abundant. Rich composition of mesozooplankton was observed with a total of 103 zooplankton comprising the community. Among these zooplankton, copepods were the most numerous group with Canthocalanus pauper, Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea venusta, Acartia erythraea and Oncaea media being the most dominant species in all sampling stations. In terms of copepod diversity profile, relatively high Shannon index (H’: 3.1-3.5) were noted implying that the area is teeming with diverse species of copepods. Although copepods were the most common zooplankton in the area, other groups, namely the protochordates, chaetognaths and chordates (fish eggs and fish larvae) were also abundant. Results of the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that water motion may be responsible to the high abundance and diversity of the copepods since this factor can lead to the mixing and transport of more copepods into the area. Hence, the high abundance of these certain groups of zooplankton may imply the high potential of the areas to be used as nursery ground for fish and other macroinvertebrates thereby further supporting the importance of maintaining the marine sanctuary already established in the area.
Cites background from "Potential roles of biotic factors i..."
01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the evolution of the marine environment and its characteristics, including the following: 1. Basic Oceanography. 2. Division of the Marine Environment. 3. Deep-Sea Biology.
Abstract: 1. Introduction to the Marine Environment. Properties of Water. Basic Oceanography. Some Ecological Principles. Larvae and Larval Ecology. Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystems. Division of the Marine Environment. 2. Plankton and Plankton Communities. The Phytoplankton. The Zooplankton. Floatation Mechanisms. Primary Production. Factors Affecting Primary Productivity. Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. The Ocean Ecosystem: The Classic Model. The Ocean Ecosystem: A Changing Model. 3. Oceanic Nekton. Composition of the Oceanic Nekton. Environmental Conditions. Adaptations of Oceanic Nekton. Ecology of Nekton. 4. Deep-Sea Biology. Zonation. Sampling the Deep Sea. Environmental Characteristics. Adaptations of Deep-Sea Organisms. Community Ecology of the Benthos. Midwater Community Ecology. 5. Shallow-Water Subtidal Benthic Associations. Environmental Conditions. Unvegetated Sedimentary Environments. Rocky Subtidal Communities. Kelp Beds and Forests. Seagrass Communities. Some Special Communities. Biology of Polar Seas. 6. Intertidal Ecology. Environmental Conditions. Adaptations of Intertidal Organisms. Rocky Shores. Cobble Beaches. Sandy Shores. Muddy Shores. Intertidal Fishes. Birds. 7. Meiofauna. Environmental Characteristics. Composition of the Interstitial Assemblages. Sampling and Extracting Meiofaunna. Adaptations. Ecology. 8. Estuaries and Salt Marshes. Types of Estuaries. Physical Characteristics of Estuaries. The Biota of Estuaries. Adaptations of Estuarine Organisms. Ecology of Estuaries. Salt Marshes. 9. Tropical Communities. Coral Reefs. Mangrove Forests. 10. Symbiotic Relationships. Symbioses of Algae and Animals. Symbioses Among Animals. 11. Human Impact on the Sea. Fisheries. Mariculture. Pollution. Marine Diseases. Drugs From the Sea. Global Warming and Sea Level Change. Concluding Remarks.
TL;DR: Monitoring for 6 years showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton, and some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophile.
Abstract: Monitoring for 6 years (2001–2006) showed that the population explosion of the alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea coincided with a decline in the abundance and species number of mesozooplankton. While this decline appeared to have reduced the nourishment of sprat (also known as kilka), it seemed to have affected phytoplankton favorably mainly due to the decrease in grazing pressure. During 2001–2002, when M. leidyi abundance and biomass were at their highest levels, abundance of dinoflagellates and cyanophytes exceeded that of diatoms. Before the invasion (1996) and in some years after the invasion (2003, 2004 and 2006) diatom abundance was higher than the abundance of other groups. In September 2005, an unprecedented bloom of the toxic cyanophyte Nodularia sp. was observed in the southern Caspian Sea. Disappearance of edible zooplankton such as Eurytemora spp. was among the first changes observed after the expansion of M. leidyi in the area. Some changes in the macrobenthic fauna were also conspicuous after the increase of this ctenophore. While the biomass of some deposit feeders, such as the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and oligochaete species increased, benthic crustaceans decreased sharply in abundance during 2001–2003 and completely disappeared during 2004–2006. Iranian catches of kilka, the most abundant and widespread zooplanktivorous fish, decreased significantly in the southern Caspian Sea after 1999. Iranian landings of kilka dropped ~70% from 69,070 ± 20,270 t during 1995–2000 to 23,430 ± 12,240 t during 2001–2006, resulting in a loss of at least 125 million US dollars to the economy. There were also changes in the total catches of large predators such as the kutum and mullet, which mainly feed on kilka, between 1991 and 2006.