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Journal ArticleDOI

Power electronics as efficient interface in dispersed power generation systems

03 Sep 2004-IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics (IEEE)-Vol. 19, Iss: 5, pp 1184-1194
TL;DR: In this article, power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems.
Abstract: The global electrical energy consumption is rising and there is a steady increase of the demand on the power capacity, efficient production, distribution and utilization of energy. The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells, small hydro, wave generators, and gas/steam powered combined heat and power stations, are being integrated into power systems at the distribution level. Power electronics, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, play an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems. This paper reviews the applications of power electronics in the integration of DG units, in particular, wind power, fuel cells and PV generators.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the structures for the DPGS based on fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind turbines is given and the possibility of compensation for low-order harmonics is discussed.
Abstract: Renewable energy sources like wind, sun, and hydro are seen as a reliable alternative to the traditional energy sources such as oil, natural gas, or coal. Distributed power generation systems (DPGSs) based on renewable energy sources experience a large development worldwide, with Germany, Denmark, Japan, and USA as leaders in the development in this field. Due to the increasing number of DPGSs connected to the utility network, new and stricter standards in respect to power quality, safe running, and islanding protection are issued. As a consequence, the control of distributed generation systems should be improved to meet the requirements for grid interconnection. This paper gives an overview of the structures for the DPGS based on fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind turbines. In addition, control structures of the grid-side converter are presented, and the possibility of compensation for low-order harmonics is also discussed. Moreover, control strategies when running on grid faults are treated. This paper ends up with an overview of synchronization methods and a discussion about their importance in the control

4,655 citations


Cites background or methods from "Power electronics as efficient inte..."

  • ...In any case, this solution also needs a soft starter and a reactive power compensator [5]....

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  • ...The voltage boosting can be done in the dc or ac stage of the system [5]–[11]....

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  • ...A soft starter is usually used to reduce the inrush currents during start up [5], [12], [13]....

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  • ...60% around synchronous speed may be obtained by the use of a power converter of 30% of nominal power [5]....

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  • ...A detailed description of the hardware structure for many types of DPGSs is given in [5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid and categorize the inverters into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the kind of grid-connected power stage.
Abstract: This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications.

3,530 citations


Cites background from "Power electronics as efficient inte..."

  • ...These tasks are further reviewed in this section....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry.
Abstract: Multilevel converters have been under research and development for more than three decades and have found successful industrial application. However, this is still a technology under development, and many new contributions and new commercial topologies have been reported in the last few years. The aim of this paper is to group and review these recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, to provide readers with a comprehensive and insightful review of where multilevel converter technology stands and is heading. This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry. In addition, new promising topologies are discussed. Recent advances made in modulation and control of multilevel converters are also addressed. A great part of this paper is devoted to show nontraditional applications powered by multilevel converters and how multilevel converters are becoming an enabling technology in many industrial sectors. Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of this technology are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

3,415 citations


Cites background from "Power electronics as efficient inte..."

  • ...This enables a variable speed range of ± 30% above and below synchronous speed [265], which is sufficient to cover...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The possible methods of using the power electronic technology for improving wind turbine performance in power systems to meet the main grid connection requirements are discussed.
Abstract: This paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Various wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described, and different technical features are compared. The electrical topologies of wind farms with different wind turbines are summarized and the possible uses of power electronic converters with wind farms are shown. Finally, the possible methods of using the power electronic technology for improving wind turbine performance in power systems to meet the main grid connection requirements are discussed.

1,344 citations


Cites background from "Power electronics as efficient inte..."

  • ...The “Danish concept” [1] of directly connecting a wind turbine to the grid is widely used in early wind turbine systems....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a topology study of the PV MICs in the power range below 500 W and covers most topologies recently proposed for MIC applications is presented, where the MIC topologies are classified into three different arrangements based on the dc link configurations.
Abstract: The annual world photovoltaic (PV) cell/module production is growing at almost an exponential rate and has reached 1727 MW in 2005. Building integrated PV (BIPV) projects are emerging as the strongest part of the PV market and grid interactive inverters are a key component in determining the total system cost. Module integrated converter (MIC) technology has become a global trend in grid interactive PV applications and may assist in driving down the balance of system costs to secure an improved total system cost. This paper concentrates on the topology study of the PV MICs in the power range below 500 W and covers most topologies recently proposed for MIC applications. The MIC topologies are classified into three different arrangements based on the dc link configurations. A systematic discussion is also provided at the end of the paper that focuses on the major advantages and disadvantages of each MIC arrangement. These are considered in detail and will provide a useful framework and point of reference for the next generation MIC designs and applications.

1,158 citations


Cites background from "Power electronics as efficient inte..."

  • ...A number of single-phase power inverter topologies have been reviewed recently and the interest has been mainly focused on the number of the conversion stages and the design specifications [4], [10]–[12], [26], [28], [29]....

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References
More filters
Book
26 Jul 1989
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a simulation of power switch-mode converters for zero-voltage and/or zero-current switchings in power electronic converters and systems.
Abstract: Partial table of contents: Overview of Power Semiconductor Switches Computer Simulation of Power Electronic Converters and Systems GENERIC POWER ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS dc--dc Switch-Mode Converters Resonant Converters: Zero-Voltage and/or Zero-Current Switchings POWER SUPPLY APPLICATIONS Power Conditioners and Uninterruptible Power Supplies MOTOR DRIVE APPLICATIONS dc Motor Drives Induction Motor Drives Synchronous Motor Drives OTHER APPLICATIONS Residential and Industrial Applications Optimizing the Utility Interface with Power Electronic Systems SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Basic Semiconductor Physics Power Diodes Power MOSFETs Thyristors Emerging Devices and Circuits PRACTICAL CONVERTER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Snubber Circuits Gate and Base Drive Circuits Design of Magnetic Components Index

5,911 citations


"Power electronics as efficient inte..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…requirements of the grid connections, including frequency, voltage, control of active and reactive power, harmonic minimization etc. Power electronic, being the technology of efficiently converting electric power, plays an important role in the field of modern electrical engineering [4], [5], it…...

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Book
15 Nov 2001
TL;DR: The Wind Energy Handbook as discussed by the authors provides an overview of wind turbine technology and wind farm design and development, as well as a survey of alternative machine architectures and an introduction to the design of the key components.
Abstract: As environmental concerns have focused attention on the generation of electricity from clean and renewable sources wind energy has become the world's fastest growing energy source. The Wind Energy Handbook draws on the authors' collective industrial and academic experience to highlight the interdisciplinary nature of wind energy research and provide a comprehensive treatment of wind energy for electricity generation. Features include: * An authoritative overview of wind turbine technology and wind farm design and development * In-depth examination of the aerodynamics and performance of land-based horizontal axis wind turbines * A survey of alternative machine architectures and an introduction to the design of the key components * Description of the wind resource in terms of wind speed frequency distribution and the structure of turbulence * Coverage of site wind speed prediction techniques * Discussions of wind farm siting constraints and the assessment of environmental impact * The integration of wind farms into the electrical power system, including power quality and system stability * Functions of wind turbine controllers and design and analysis techniques With coverage ranging from practical concerns about component design to the economic importance of sustainable power sources, the Wind Energy Handbook will be an asset to engineers, turbine designers, wind energy consultants and graduate engineering students.

3,730 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Dec 2002
TL;DR: The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed) and current-source converters where a capacitor and inductor are used, respectively.
Abstract: This paper presents an impedance-source (or impedance-fed) power converter (abbreviated as Z-source converter) and its control method for implementing DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. The Z-source converter employs a unique impedance network (or circuit) to couple the converter main circuit to the power source, thus providing unique features that cannot be obtained in the traditional voltage-source (or voltage-fed) and current-source (or current-fed) converters where a capacitor and inductor are used, respectively. The Z-source converter overcomes the conceptual and theoretical barriers and limitations of the traditional voltage-source converter (abbreviated as V-source converter) and current-source converter (abbreviated as I-source converter) and provides a novel power conversion concept. The Z-source concept can be applied to all DC-to-AC, AC-to-DC, AC-to-AC, and DC-to-DC power conversion. To describe the operating principle and control, this paper focuses on an example: a Z-source inverter for DC-AC power conversion needed in fuel cell applications. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the new features.

2,851 citations

Book
13 Nov 1998
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an index for bibliographical references and index Reference Record created on 2007-04-26, modified on 2016-08-08, and a reference record created on 2006-07-26.
Abstract: Note: Includes bibliographical references and index Reference Record created on 2007-04-26, modified on 2016-08-08

1,604 citations


"Power electronics as efficient inte..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The development in wind turbine systems has been steady for the last 25 years and four to five generations of wind turbines exist [1]....

    [...]

  • ...However, the power system is changing, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units, including both renewable and nonrenewable sources such as wind turbines, wave generators, photovoltaic (PV) generators, small hydro, fuel cells and gas/steam powered combined heat and power (CHP) stations, are being developed [1]–[3]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a robust control strategy for regulating the grid current entering a distribution network from a three-phase VSI system connected via a LCL filter is proposed, which integrates an outer loop grid current regulator with inner capacitor current regulation to stabilize the system.
Abstract: Many grid connected power electronic systems, such as STATCOMs, UPFCs, and distributed generation system interfaces, use a voltage source inverter (VSI) connected to the supply network through a filter. This filter, typically a series inductance, acts to reduce the switching harmonics entering the distribution network. An alternative filter is a LCL network, which can achieve reduced levels of harmonic distortion at lower switching frequencies and with less inductance, and therefore has potential benefits for higher power applications. However, systems incorporating LCL filters require more complex control strategies and are not commonly presented in literature. This paper proposes a robust strategy for regulating the grid current entering a distribution network from a three-phase VSI system connected via a LCL filter. The strategy integrates an outer loop grid current regulator with inner capacitor current regulation to stabilize the system. A synchronous frame PI current regulation strategy is used for the outer grid current control loop. Linear analysis, simulation, and experimental results are used to verify the stability of the control algorithm across a range of operating conditions. Finally, expressions for ""harmonic impedance" of the system are derived to study the effects of supply voltage distortion on the harmonic performance of the system.

869 citations


"Power electronics as efficient inte..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Excellent utility current control is reported with a P Resonant controller in [30], and with a standard PI controller in [13]....

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