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Journal ArticleDOI

Pre-burial taphonomic imprints on drilling intensity: a case study from the recent molluscs of Chandipur, India

TL;DR: Palaeoecological studies of drilling intensity, drawing ecological and evolutionary inferences, generally assume that drilled and undrilled specimens are equally preserved in the fossil record as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Palaeoecological studies of drilling intensity (DI), drawing ecological and evolutionary inferences, generally assume that drilled and undrilled specimens are equally preserved in the fossil record...
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121 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a hierarchical Bayesian framework was developed to account for uncertainty from overdispersion and zero inflation in estimates of specimen and predation trace counts in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Abstract: The effects of overdispersion and zero inflation (e.g., poor model fits) can result in misinterpretation in studies using count data. These effects have not been evaluated in paleoecological studies of predation and are further complicated by preservational bias and time averaging. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for uncertainty from overdispersion and zero inflation in estimates of specimen and predation trace counts. We demonstrate its application using published data on drilling predators and their prey in time-averaged death assemblages from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Our results indicate that estimates of predation frequencies are underestimated when zero inflation is not considered, and this effect is likely compounded by removal of individuals and predation traces via preservational bias. Time averaging likely reduces zero inflation via accumulation of rare taxa and events; however, it increases the uncertainty in comparisons between assemblages by introducing variability in sampling effort. That is, there is an analytical cost with time-averaged count data, manifesting as broader confidence regions. Ecological inferences in paleoecology can be strengthened by accounting for the uncertainty inherent to paleoecological count data and the sampling processes by which they are generated.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2020-PALAIOS
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a new dataset of gastropod drilling predation on Kimmeridgian and Tithonian bivalves of Kutch, India, which suggests that drilling was one of the prevailing modes of predation in the Upper Jurassic of the Kutch with strongly variable intensities.
Abstract: Gastropod drillholes on prey shells provide an opportunity to test the importance of predation in an evolutionary context. Although records of drilling predation are widespread across the Phanerozoic, the temporal distribution and relative importance of this mode of predation is still controversial. Further, some studies indicate a decline of drilling predation in the Mesozoic but other studies do not. In this study, we present a new dataset of gastropod drilling predation on Kimmeridgian and Tithonian bivalves of Kutch, India. Our study suggests that drilling was one of the prevailing modes of predation in the Upper Jurassic of Kutch with strongly variable intensities, ranging from 2% in the Kimmeridgian Seebachia to 26% in the Tithonian Pinna. A significant, albeit small, increase in drilling intensity from the Kimmeridgian to the Tithonian assemblages is associated with a change in relative sea-level and depositional environment. The morphology of drillholes and recent discovery of body fossils from the same stratigraphic units suggest naticid gastropods as the most likely drillers. A literature survey, along with previously collected specimen from the Jurassic of Kutch, reveals a more complex history of drilling predation than previously assumed.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Aug 2021-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the nature of spatio-environmental and latitudinal variation in gastropod drilling along the Indian eastern coast by using 76 samples collected from 39 locations, covering ~2500 km, incorporating several ecoregions, and ~15° latitudinal extents.
Abstract: Studies on the large-scale latitudinal patterns of gastropod drilling predation reveal that predation pressure may decrease or increase with increasing latitude, or even show no trend, questioning the generality of any large-scale latitudinal or biogeographic pattern. Here, we analyze the nature of spatio-environmental and latitudinal variation in gastropod drilling along the Indian eastern coast by using 76 samples collected from 39 locations, covering ~2500 km, incorporating several ecoregions, and ~15° latitudinal extents. We find no environmental or latitudinal gradient. In fact, drilling intensity varies highly within the same latitudinal bin, or oceanic sub-basins, or even the same ecoregions. Moreover, different ecoregions with their distinctive biotic and abiotic environmental variables show similar predation intensities. However, one pattern is prevalent: some small infaunal prey taxa, living in the sandy-muddy substrate-which are preferred by the naticid gastropods-are always attacked more frequently over others, indicating taxon and size selectivity by the predators. The result suggests that the biotic and abiotic factors, known to influence drilling predation, determine only the local predation pattern. In the present case, the nature of substrate and prey composition determines the local predation intensity: soft substrate habitats host dominantly small, infaunal prey. Since the degree of spatial variability in drilling intensity within any time bin can be extremely high, sometimes greater than the variability across consecutive time bins, temporal patterns in drilling predation can never be interpreted without having detailed knowledge of the nature of this spatial variability within a time bin.
References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing; permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved on all copies.
Abstract: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.

272,030 citations

Book
21 May 1987
TL;DR: Geerat Vermeij demonstrates that escalation--the process by which species adapt to, or are limited by, their enemies as the latter increase in ability to acquire and retain resources--has been a dominant theme in the history of life despite frequent episodes of extinction.
Abstract: Here is one biologist's interpretation of the chronology of life during the last six hundred million years of earth history: an extended essay that draws on the author's own data and a wide-ranging literature survey to discuss the nature and dynamics of evolutionary change in organisms and their biological surroundings. Geerat Vermeij demonstrates that escalation--the process by which species adapt to, or are limited by, their enemies as the latter increase in ability to acquire and retain resources--has been a dominant theme in the history of life despite frequent episodes of extinction.

983 citations


"Pre-burial taphonomic imprints on d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…have long been used to understand ecological or evolutionary pathways of prey-predator dynamics across different spatio-temporal and taxonomic scales (Vermeij 1987; Kowalewski et al. 1998; Kelley and Hansen 2006; Huntley and Kowalewski 2007; Klompmaker et al. 2017, 2019; Mondal et al. 2017, 2019)....

    [...]

01 Jan 1981

289 citations


"Pre-burial taphonomic imprints on d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...All of our drillholes had a circular cross-section with distinct inner and outer borehole diameter and match with Oichnus paraboloides of Bromley (1981) (Figure 1)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2002
TL;DR: A survey of sampling protocols (data collecting strategy, sieve size, and sample size) and analytical approaches (predation intensity metrics, strategies for evaluating behavioral selectivity of predators, and taphonomic tests) reveals that various approaches can be fruitful depending on logistic circumstances and scientific goals of paleoecological projects as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Paleontological research on predation has been expanding rapidly in scope, methods, and goals. The growing assortment of research strategies and goals has led to increasing differences in sampling strategies, types of data collected, definition of variables, and even reporting style. This methodological overview serves as a starting point for erecting some general methodological guidelines for studying the fossil record of predation. I focus here on trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey, arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. A critical survey of sampling protocols (data collecting strategy, sieve size, and sample size) and analytical approaches (predation intensity metrics, strategies for evaluating behavioral selectivity of predators, and taphonomic tests) reveals that various approaches can be fruitful depending on logistic circumstances and scientific goals of paleoecological projects. Despite numerous caveats and uncertainties, trace fossils left by predators on skeletons of their prey remain one of the most promising directions of research in paleoecology and evolutionary paleobiology.

274 citations


"Pre-burial taphonomic imprints on d..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although bulk sampling would have been preferred for DI analyses (Kowalewski 2002), commonly used taxon-specific sampling also provides reliable results for drilling predation studies (Ottens et al. 2012; Hattori et al. 2014 and references therein)....

    [...]

11 Jan 1981
TL;DR: The nombre de la pista fosil (ichnotaxon) is basado en la morfologia de la estructura, mientras el taxon biologico represents the posicion filogenetica que se interpreta del organismo causante as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: La clasificacion de las pistas fosiles requiere un doble sistema de nomenclatura. El nombre de la pista fosil (ichnotaxon) esta basado en la morfologia de la estructura, mientras que el taxon biologico representa la posicion filogenetica que se interpreta del organismo causante. Los dos sistemas de nomenclatura no se pueden intercambiar, y ambos son necesarios para la completa clasificacion de la pista. A muchas de estas pistas no les ha sido aun atribuido unichnotaxon descriptivo, pero ya que las pistas fosiles re quieren nombres si han de ser tratadas sistematicamente, se ofrece comunmente en tales casos un biotaxon interpretativo en lugar del ichnotaxon que no se ha descritotodavia Este procedimiento tiende a desviar la atencion de la verdadera naturaleza de la pista fosil e implica una falsa exactitud en la determinacion filogenetica, lo cual conduce a conclusiones paleobiologicas poco seguras. Estos puntos quedan bien ilustrados por el ejemplo de unas perforaciones pequeiias y redondas sobre conchas. Son pistas fosiles abundantes y, no teniendo ichnotaxon, tienden a ser relacionadas con la accion perforante de los gasteropedos-naticidos y muricidos-sobre conchas. Sin embargo, varios grupos mas de gasteropodos producen perforaciones redondas, al igual que los cefalopodos octopodos, turbelarios, nematodos y braquiopodos articulados, pero su accion es poco conocida. Antes de embarcarse en tales especulaciones, como son los organismos causantes, es necesario un ichnotaxon para atraer la atencion hacia estas pistas fosiles y aumentarel rigorde su tratamiento. Solo cuando su morfologia y distribucion sean mejor conocidas estaremos en una posicion mejor para discutir sus atribuciones filogeneticas.

272 citations