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Journal ArticleDOI

Predicting Malignancy in a Solitary Thyroid Nodule: A Prospective Study on the Role of Color Doppler Ultrasonography

01 Apr 2014-Vol. 6, Iss: 1, pp 9-14

TL;DR: A study from a hospital from Indian west coast shows that vascular flow pattern of extensive peripheral and central flow or a central flow only and a resistive index of >0.75 on power Doppler sonography shows a healthy sensitivity and excellent specificity for pre dicting malignancy.

AbstractPalpable thyroid nodules are fairly common. While many are benign, the clinician faces the challenge of detecting the 4 to 14% of malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration cyto logy (FNAC) of thyroid nodules seems to have eclipsed all other techniques for diagnosis of thyroid cancer, but has its limi tations when a nodule is inaccessible or in the case of folli cular neoplasm. This study from a hospital from Indian west coast shows that vascular flow pattern of extensive peripheral and central flow (Type-3) or a central flow only (Type-4) and a resistive index (RI) of >0.75 on power Doppler sonography shows a healthy sensitivity and excellent specificity for pre dicting malignancy. The utility becomes even more apparent among follicular neoplasms where FNAC can offer little help in distinguishing malignancy.

Topics: Thyroid nodules (66%), Thyroid cancer (58%), Nodule (medicine) (54%), Malignancy (53%), Fine-needle aspiration (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Color Doppler is a valuable non-invasive method for evaluating thyroid nodules, and it is a high-sensitivity diagnostic tool for assessing thyroid nodule sensitivity and specificity and should be included in the standard clinical protocol.
Abstract: Today, the color Doppler ultrasonography is used to further evaluate suspected malignant tumors. This study investigates the malignant thyroid nodules using color Doppler. After extracting true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative among included studies, a quality was evaluated by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) were found using a random effect model. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves (SROC) were used to assess relationship between sensitivity and specificity. The area under the curve of the SROC was calculated to estimate the performance of color Doppler ultrasound to distinguish malignant thyroid nodules. Our registration code in PROSPERO is CRD42018111198. Of 1125 articles, 288 articles were selected for the further investigation. After excluding irrelevant and poor articles, 20 studies were included for the meta-analysis. According to a random effect model, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of color Doppler ultrasound to distinguish malignant thyroid nodules were estimated as 0.74 (95% CI 0.62–0.83; $$ I^{2} = 89.94\% $$) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56–0.81; $$ I^{2} = 97.79\% $$), respectively. The SROC curve consists of representing the paired results for sensitivity and specificity. According to SROC, AUC = 0.78 (95% CI 0.74–0.81) is between 0.75 and 0.92, so that color Doppler ultrasound has a good accuracy. Color Doppler is a valuable non-invasive method for evaluating thyroid nodules, and it is a high-sensitivity diagnostic tool for assessing thyroid nodules. Resistive index > 0.75 and a pattern III or more in color Doppler predicts malignant with the confidence. Due to its precision, cost-efficiency, easy access, and non-invasive nature, color Doppler should be included in the standard clinical protocol for the decision-making period and the treatment evaluation.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009-Thyroid
TL;DR: Evidence-based recommendations are developed to inform clinical decision-making in the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer and represent, in the authors' opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.
Abstract: Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Gr...

8,016 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Nov 2009-Thyroid
TL;DR: Evidence-based recommendations in response to the appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer represent, in the authors' opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.
Abstract: Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines. Methods: Relevant articles through December 2008 were reviewed by the task force and categorized by topic and level of evidence according to a modified schema used by the United States Preventative Services Task Force. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, a...

7,170 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of the study was to correlate the sonographic and color-Doppler findings with the results of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy and of pathologic staging of resected carcinomas to establish the relative importance of US features as risk factors of malignancy and a cost-effective management of nonpalpable thyroid nodules.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to correlate the sonographic [ultrasound (US)] and color-Doppler (CFD) findings with the results of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and of pathologic staging of resected carcinomas to establish: 1) the relative importance of US features as risk factors of malignancy; and 2) a cost-effective management of nonpalpable thyroid nodules. Four hundred ninety-four consecutive patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (8–15 mm) were evaluated by US, CFD, and US-FNA. Ninety-two patients with inadequate cytology were excluded from the study. All patients with suspicious or malignant cytology underwent surgery, whereas subjects with benign cytology had clinical and US control 6 months later. Thyroid malignancies were observed in 18 of 195 (9.2%) solitary thyroid nodules and in 13 of 207 (6.3%) multinodular goiters. Cancer prevalence was similar in nodules greater or smaller than 10 mm (9.1 vs. 7.0%). Extracapsular growth (pT4) was present in 35.5%, and nodal involvement in 19.4...

1,237 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review describes a strategy for the treatment of clinically euthyroid patients who have a solitary thyroid nodule that prevents unnecessary testing while identifying the few patients who require therapy.
Abstract: The solitary thyroid nodule, defined as a palpably discrete swelling within an otherwise apparently normal gland, is usually a benign lesion. However, patient and physician alike are typically concerned about the possibility of thyroid cancer. This review describes a strategy for the treatment of clinically euthyroid patients who have a solitary thyroid nodule that prevents unnecessary testing while identifying the few patients who require therapy. Management has changed in recent years, but important differences of opinion remain over which nodules should be surgically excised. Several recent reviews address these issues comprehensively1–3. Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Cancer The . . .

1,227 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is of the view that levothyroxine, although widely used, should no longer be recommended routinely for this condition and the increasing use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy is supported.
Abstract: The simple nodular goiter, the etiology of which is multifactorial, encompasses the spectrum from the incidental asymptomatic small solitary nodule to the large intrathoracic goiter, causing pressure symptoms as well as cosmetic complaints. Its management is still the cause of considerable controversy. The mainstay in the diagnostic evaluation is related to functional and morphological characterization with serum TSH and (some kind of) imaging. Because malignancy is just as common in patients with a multinodular goiter as patients with a solitary nodule, we support the increasing use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (cytology). Most patients need no treatment after malignancy is ruled out. In case of cosmetic or pressure symptoms, the choice in multinodular goiter stands between surgery, which is still the first choice, and radioiodine if uptake is adequate. In addition to surgery, the solitary nodule, whether hot or cold, can be treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy. If hot, radioiodine is the therapy of choice. Randomized studies are scarce, and the side effects of nonsurgical therapy are coming into focus. Therefore, the use of the optimum option in the individual patient cannot at present be based on evidence. However, we are of the view that levothyroxine, although widely used, should no longer be recommended routinely for this condition. Within a few years, the introduction of recombinant human TSH and laser therapy may profoundly alter the nonsurgical treatment of simple nodular goiter.

573 citations