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Journal ArticleDOI

Predicting MCI outcome with clinically available MRI and CSF biomarkers

25 Oct 2011-Neurology (American Academy of Neurology)-Vol. 77, Iss: 17, pp 1619-1628

AbstractObjective: To determine the ability of clinically available volumetric MRI (vMRI) and CSF biomarkers, alone or in combination with a quantitative learning measure, to predict conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We stratified 192 MCI participants into positive and negative risk groups on the basis of 1) degree of learning impairment on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test; 2) medial temporal atrophy, quantified from Food and Drug Administration–approved software for automated vMRI analysis; and 3) CSF biomarker levels. We also stratified participants based on combinations of risk factors. We computed Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for age, to assess 3-year risk of converting to AD as a function of risk group and used Kaplan-Meier analyses to determine median survival times. Results: When risk factors were examined separately, individuals testing positive showed significantly higher risk of converting to AD than individuals testing negative (hazard ratios [HR] 1.8– 4.1). The joint presence of any 2 risk factors substantially increased risk, with the combination of greater learning impairment and increased atrophy associated with highest risk (HR 29.0): 85% of patients with both risk factors converted to AD within 3 years, vs 5% of those with neither. The presence of medial temporal atrophy was associated with shortest median dementia-free survival (15 months). Conclusions: Incorporating quantitative assessment of learning ability along with vMRI or CSF biomarkers in the clinical workup of MCI can provide critical information on risk of imminent conversion to AD. Neurology ® 2011;77:1619–1628

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The major accomplishments of ADNI have been the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting, and the improvement of clinical trial efficiency.
Abstract: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (5) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Baseline cognitive and/or MRI measures generally predicted future decline better than other modalities, whereas MRI measures of change were shown to be the most efficient outcome measures; (6) the confirmation of the AD risk loci CLU, CR1, and PICALM and the identification of novel candidate risk loci; (7) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Europe, Asia, and Australia; (8) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker data with clinical data from ADNI to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (9) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world. The ADNI study was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and a renewal of ADNI (ADNI-2) in October 2010 through to 2016, with enrollment of an additional 550 participants.

833 citations


Cites background from "Predicting MCI outcome with clinica..."

  • ...While the above papers developed a range of automatic multi-modal methods of the prediction of disease progression, Heister et al [295] asked whether MCI to AD conversion can be predicted using clinically available biomarker systems (commercially available software for fully automated volumetric MRI and commercial CSF analysis)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories.
Abstract: Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Ab40 and Ab42, CSF Ab40, Ab42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n 5 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n 5 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Ab40 and plasma Ab40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. Neurology® 2015;85:1–9 GLOSSARY 3G-RES 5 3-O-glucuronidated-resveratrol; 4G-RES 5 4-O-glucuronidated-resveratrol; AD 5 Alzheimer disease; ADAScog 5 Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive; ADCS 5 Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study; ADCS-ADL 5 Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale; AE 5 adverse event; BMI 5 body mass index; CDRSOB 5 Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes; Cmax 5 maximal plasma concentration; DMSO 5 dimethyl sulfoxide; ITT 5 intention-to-treat; MMRM 5 mixed-model repeated-measures; MMSE 5 Mini-Mental State Examination; NPI 5 Neuropsychiatric Inventory; S-RES 5 3-sulfated-resveratrol; SAE 5 serious adverse event.

362 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extent of innate immune gene upregulation in AD was modest relative to the robust response apparent in the aged brain, consistent with the emerging idea of a critical involvement of inflammation in the earliest stages, perhaps even in the preclinical stage, of AD.
Abstract: Background This study undertakes a systematic and comprehensive analysis of brain gene expression profiles of immune/inflammation-related genes in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

325 citations


Cites result from "Predicting MCI outcome with clinica..."

  • ...Aβ is likely to be both an initiating trigger and chronic driver of innate immune activation [111], consistent with growing data suggesting that MCI cases with high Aβ are at increased probability for converting to AD [112]....

    [...]



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The major accomplishments of ADNI have been the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting, and the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes.
Abstract: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial study, ADNI-1, enrolled 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 with early AD, and 200 cognitively normal elderly controls. ADNI-1 was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and by a competitive renewal, ADNI-2, which enrolled an additional 550 participants and will run until 2015. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results to the end of 2013. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are largely consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimer's Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151–3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers select and combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, amyloid PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of blood biomarkers for AD as potentially noninvasive and low-cost alternatives to CSF biomarkers for AD diagnosis and the assessment of α-syn as an additional biomarker; (5) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (6) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Multimodal methods incorporating APOE status and longitudinal MRI proved most highly predictive of future decline. Refinements of clinical tests used as outcome measures such as clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes further reduced sample sizes; (7) the pioneering of genome-wide association studies that leverage quantitative imaging and biomarker phenotypes, including longitudinal data, to confirm recently identified loci, CR1, CLU , and PICALM and to identify novel AD risk loci; (8) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Japan, Australia, Argentina, Taiwan, China, Korea, Europe, and Italy; (9) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker and clinical data to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (10) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world.

213 citations


Cites background from "Predicting MCI outcome with clinica..."

  • ...While the above papers developed a range of automatic multi-modal methods of the prediction of disease progression, Heister et al [295] asked whether MCI to AD conversion can be predicted using clinically available biomarker systems (commercially available software for fully automated volumetric MRI and commercial CSF analysis)....

    [...]


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The workgroup sought to ensure that the revised criteria would be flexible enough to be used by both general healthcare providers without access to neuropsychological testing, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid measures, and specialized investigators involved in research or in clinical trial studies who would have these tools available.
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TL;DR: A conceptual framework and operational research criteria are proposed, based on the prevailing scientific evidence to date, to test and refine these models with longitudinal clinical research studies and it is hoped that these recommendations will provide a common rubric to advance the study of preclinical AD.
Abstract: The pathophysiological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to begin many years before the diagnosis of AD dementia. This long "preclinical" phase of AD would provide a critical opportunity for therapeutic intervention; however, we need to further elucidate the link between the pathological cascade of AD and the emergence of clinical symptoms. The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association convened an international workgroup to review the biomarker, epidemiological, and neuropsychological evidence, and to develop recommendations to determine the factors which best predict the risk of progression from "normal" cognition to mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia. We propose a conceptual framework and operational research criteria, based on the prevailing scientific evidence to date, to test and refine these models with longitudinal clinical research studies. These recommendations are solely intended for research purposes and do not have any clinical implications at this time. It is hoped that these recommendations will provide a common rubric to advance the study of preclinical AD, and ultimately, aid the field in moving toward earlier intervention at a stage of AD when some disease-modifying therapies may be most efficacious.

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TL;DR: This work proposes a model that relates disease stage to AD biomarkers in which Abeta biomarkers become abnormal first, before neurodegenerative biomarkers and cognitive symptoms, and neurodegnerative biomarker become abnormal later, and correlate with clinical symptom severity.
Abstract: Summary Currently available evidence strongly supports the position that the initiating event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is related to abnormal processing of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, ultimately leading to formation of Aβ plaques in the brain. This process occurs while individuals are still cognitively normal. Biomarkers of brain β-amyloidosis are reductions in CSF Aβ 42 and increased amyloid PET tracer retention. After a lag period, which varies from patient to patient, neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration become the dominant pathological processes. Biomarkers of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration are increased CSF tau and structural MRI measures of cerebral atrophy. Neurodegeneration is accompanied by synaptic dysfunction, which is indicated by decreased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET. We propose a model that relates disease stage to AD biomarkers in which Aβ biomarkers become abnormal first, before neurodegenerative biomarkers and cognitive symptoms, and neurodegenerative biomarkers become abnormal later, and correlate with clinical symptom severity.

3,465 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The approach taken in ADNI to standardization across sites and platforms of the MRI protocol, postacquisition corrections, and phantom‐based monitoring of all scanners could be used as a model for other multisite trials.
Abstract: Dementia, one of the most feared associates of increasing longevity, represents a pressing public health problem and major research priority. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting many millions around the world. There is currently no cure for AD, but large numbers of novel compounds are currently under development that have the potential to modify the course of the disease and slow its progression. There is a pressing need for imaging biomarkers to improve understanding of the disease and to assess the efficacy of these proposed treatments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has already been shown to be sensitive to presymptomatic disease (1-10) and has the potential to provide such a biomarker. For use in large-scale multicenter studies, however, standardized methods that produce stable results across scanners and over time are needed. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study is a longitudinal multisite observational study of elderly individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD (11,12). It is jointly funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and industry via the Foundation for the NIH. The study will assess how well information (alone or in combination) obtained from MRI, (18F)-fludeoyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), urine, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as well as clinical and neuropsychometric assessments, can measure disease progression in the three groups of elderly subjects mentioned above. At the 55 participating sites in North America, imaging, clinical, and biologic samples will be collected at multiple time points in 200 elderly cognitively normal, 400 MCI, and 200 AD subjects. All subjects will be scanned with 1.5 T MRI at each time point, and half of these will also be scanned with FDG PET. Subjects not assigned to the PET arm of the study will be eligible for 3 T MRI scanning. The goal is to acquire both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI studies at multiple time points in 25% of the subjects who do not undergo PET scanning [R2C1]. CSF collection at both baseline and 12 months is targeted for 50% of the subjects. Sampling varies by clinical group. Healthy elderly controls will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Subjects with MCI will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. AD subjects will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. Major goals of the ADNI study are: to link all of these data at each time point and make this repository available to the general scientific community; to develop technical standards for imaging in longitudinal studies; to determine the optimum methods for acquiring and analyzing images; to validate imaging and biomarker data by correlating these with concurrent psychometric and clinical assessments; and to improve methods for clinical trials in MCI and AD. The ADNI study overall is divided into cores, with each core managing ADNI-related activities within its sphere of expertise: clinical, informatics, biostatistics, biomarkers, and imaging. The purpose of this report is to describe the MRI methods and decision-making process underlying the selection of the MRI protocol employed in the ADNI study.

3,099 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Develop a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects.
Abstract: If the clinical diagnosis of probable AD is imprecise with accuracy rates of approximately 90% or lower using established consensus criteria for probable AD, but definite AD requires autopsy confirmation, it is not surprising that diagnostic accuracy is lower at early and presymptomatic stages of AD.1–4 It is believed that the development of full-blown AD takes place over an approximately 20-year prodromal period, but this is difficult to determine in the absence of biomarkers that reliably signal the onset of nascent disease before the emergence of measurable cognitive impairments. Because intervention with disease-modifying therapies for AD is likely to be most efficacious before significant neurodegeneration has occurred, there is an urgent need for biomarker-based tests that enable a more accurate and early diagnosis of AD.5–7 Moreover, such tests could also improve monitoring AD progression, evaluation of new AD therapies, and enrichment of AD cohorts with specific subsets of AD subjects in clinical trials. The defining lesions of AD are neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques formed, respectively, by neuronal accumulations of abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau filaments and extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils, mostly the 1 to 42 peptide (Aβ1-42), the least soluble of the known Aβ peptides produced from Aβ precursor protein by the action of various peptidases.1–3 Hence, for these and other reasons summarized in consensus reports on AD biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), total tau (t-tau), and Aβ were identified as being among the most promising and informative AD biomarkers.5,6 Increased levels of tau in CSF are thought to occur after its release from damaged and dying neurons that harbor dystrophic tau neurites and tangles, whereas reduced CSF levels of Aβ1-42 are believed to result from large-scale accumulation of this least soluble of Aβ peptides into insoluble plaques in the AD brain. The combination of increased CSF concentrations of t-tau and phosphotau (p-tau) species and decreased concentrations of Aβ1-42 are considered to be a pathological CSF biomarker signature that is diagnostic for AD.5,6,8,9 Notably, recent studies have provided compelling preliminary data to suggest that this combination of CSF tau and Aβ biomarker changes may predict the conversion to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects.10 Thus, an increase in levels of CSF tau associated with a decline in levels of CSF Aβ1-42 may herald the onset of AD before it becomes clinically manifest. However, before the utility of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau concentrations for diagnosis of AD can be established, it is critical to standardize the methodology for their measurement.5–8,10 For example, among the published studies of CSF tau and Aβ, there is considerable variability in the observed levels of these analytes, as well as their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. This is attributable to variability in analytical methodology standardization and other factors that differ between studies of the same CSF analytes in similar but not identical cohorts.5–7 The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was launched in 2004 to address these and other limitations in AD biomarkers (see reviews in Shaw and colleagues7 and Mueller and coauthors,11 and the ADNI Web site [http://www.adni-info.org/index] where the ADNI grant and all ADNI data are posted for public access). To this end, the Biomarker Core of ADNI conducts studies on ADNI-derived CSF samples to measure CSF Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau (tau phosphorylated at threonine181 [p-tau181p]) in standardized assays. Evaluation of CSF obtained at baseline evaluation of 416 of the 819 ADNI subjects is now complete, and we report here our findings on the performance of these tests using a standardized multiplex immunoassay system that measures the biomarkers simultaneously in the same sample aliquot in ADNI subjects and in an independent cohort of autopsy-confirmed AD cases.

1,733 citations


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