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Journal ArticleDOI

Preimplantation development of in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized ovine zygotes: comparison between coculture on oviduct epithelial cell monolayers and culture under low oxygen atmosphere.

TL;DR: Two distinct culture environments are characterized, each capable of supporting the development of high frequencies of unselected IVMF zygotes to the blastocyst stage in vitro, and survival of the embryo under a reduced oxygen atmosphere is investigated.
Abstract: The roles of medium composition, serum source, embryo coculture, and culture under low O2 conditions on the development of in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized (IVMF) ovine zygotes were investigated in three separate experiments. In the first experiment, the proportion of cocultured IVMF zygotes developing to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (38.0% vs. 3.5%; p < 0.05) than that of non-cocultured zygotes treated within three embryo culture media (TCM-199 + 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]; bicarbonate-buffered, glucose-free synthetic oviduct fluid medium [mod-SOFM] + 10% FBS; and bicarbonate-buffered BSA-free Tyrode's salt solution [mod-TALP] + 10% FBS) under a 5% CO2 atmosphere in air. In a second experiment, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) proportion of cocultured zygotes placed in TCM-199 medium survived to the blastocyst stage (37.4% blastocysts vs. 23.4% in mod-SOFM). No significant effect of serum (FBS vs. human serum [HS]) was observed on embryonic development, but coculture was confirmed to exert a significant influence on development to the blastocyst stage. In the final experiment, survival of the embryo under a reduced oxygen (5% CO2:5% O2:90% N2) atmosphere was investigated. In contrast to results in the initial experiments, embryonic survival was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the non-cocultured treatment groups (21.9% blastocysts vs. 0.4% for cocultured zygotes). Serum source also had a significant (p < 0.05) influence upon the development of non-cocultured zygotes: 32.3% of zygotes cultured with HS progressed to the blastocyst stage vs. 11.5% of zygotes cultured in FBS-supplemented medium. These results have characterized two distinct culture environments, each capable of supporting the development of high frequencies of unselected IVMF zygotes to the blastocyst stage in vitro.

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Citations
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TL;DR: It is now common to add antioxidant compounds to culture media, but maintaining the pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in embryos through such supplementation is a complex problem.
Abstract: Oxidative stress is involved in the aetiology of defective embryo development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may originate from embryo metabolism and/or embryo surroundings. Embryo metabolism generates ROS via several enzymatic mechanisms. The relative contribution of each source seems different depending on the species, the stage of development, and the culture conditions. Several exogenous factors and culture conditions can enhance the production of ROS by embryos. ROS can alter most types of cellular molecules, and also induce development block and retardation. Multiple mechanisms of embryo protection against ROS exist, and these have complementary actions. External protection, present in follicular and tubal fluids, mainly comprises non-enzymatic antioxidants such as hypotaurine, taurine and ascorbic acid. Internal protection mainly comprises antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Transcripts encoding for these enzymes are present in the oocyte, embryo and oviduct. It may be important that these transcripts are stored during oocyte maturation in order to allow the embryo to acquire the aptitude to develop. It is now common to add antioxidant compounds to culture media. Nevertheless, maintaining the pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in embryos through such supplementation is a complex problem. Further studies are necessary to limit oxidative stress during embryo culture.

1,198 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent improvements of embryo production and freezing technologies could be used for constitution of flocks without risks of disease transmission and will allow wider propagation of valuable genes in small ruminants populations in the future.

319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Many modifiable conditions exist in an ART setting that may aid in reducing the toxic effects of ROS, and the main objective of this review is to provide ART personnel with all the necessary information regarding the development of oxidative stress in anART setting.

307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate that exposure to some in vitro environments during the first 7 days of life can profoundly influence fetal and placental development in cattle.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that blastocysts derived from in vitro maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture protocols undergo apoptosis but that apoptotic levels are not greatly influenced by the oocyte maturation environment.
Abstract: The objectives were 1) to investigate the effects of oocyte maturation in serum-free and amino acid-supplemented defined media on oocyte transcript levels, blastocyst cell number, and apoptosis; 2) to investigate the influence of oocyte maturation culture atmosphere on blastocyst development, total cell number, and apoptosis; and 3) to examine the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) during oocyte maturation on blastocyst cell number and apoptosis. The results demonstrate that blastocysts derived from in vitro maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture protocols undergo apoptosis but that apoptotic levels are not greatly influenced by the oocyte maturation environment. Amino acid supplementation of oocyte maturation media was associated with enhanced developmental frequencies, increased blastocyst cell number, and elevated oocyte maternal mRNA levels. Oocyte maturation with supplemented synthetic oviduct fluid medium (cSOFMaa) resulted in blastocyst cell numbers comparable to those observed with Tissue Culture Medium 199 + newborn calf serum. Blastocyst development was reduced following oocyte maturation under a 5% CO(2), 7% O(2), 88% N(2) culture atmosphere. EGF supplementation of oocyte maturation medium resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in blastocyst development but did not influence blastocyst total cell number or apoptosis. Our findings indicate that cSOFMaa medium is an effective base medium for bovine oocyte maturation.

203 citations


Cites background or methods from "Preimplantation development of in v..."

  • ...Our findings indicate not only that cSOFMaa medium is an effective base medium for embryo culture [14,15,18,29,36] but also that it can be effectively employed as a base medium for oocyte maturation....

    [...]

  • ...COCs were collected by razor blade slashing of slaughterhouse ovaries within 4 h of removal from the animal [13,29]....

    [...]

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a general class of regression models for ordinal data is developed and discussed, which utilize the ordinal nature of the data by describing various modes of stochastic ordering and this eliminates the need for assigning scores or otherwise assuming cardinality instead of ordinality.
Abstract: SUMMARY A general class of regression models for ordinal data is developed and discussed. These models utilize the ordinal nature of the data by describing various modes of stochastic ordering and this eliminates the need for assigning scores or otherwise assuming cardinality instead of ordinality. Two models in particular, the proportional odds and the proportional hazards models are likely to be most useful in practice because of the simplicity of their interpretation. These linear models are shown to be multivariate extensions of generalized linear models. Extensions to non-linear models are discussed and it is shown that even here the method of iteratively reweighted least squares converges to the maximum likelihood estimate, a property which greatly simplifies the necessary computation. Applications are discussed with the aid of examples.

3,647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A procedure to obtain high and repeatable fertilization frequencies for bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen-thawed sperm was developed and Heparin was the most important factor in increasing IVF frequencies.

1,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Two Faces of Oxygen Molecular oxygen is both benign and malign and the superoxide dismutases, by catalytically scavenging 0;, provide a defense against it and against any reactive radical species which can be derived from it.
Abstract: The Two Faces of Oxygen Molecular oxygen is both benign and malign On the one hand it provides enormous advantages and on the other it imposes a universal toxicity This toxicity is largely due to the intermediates of oxygen reduction, ie 0;, H202, and OH·, and any organism that avails itself of the benefits of oxygen does so at the cost of maintaining an elaborate system of defenses against these intermediates We will here concern ourselves with the superoxide dismutases which, by catalytically scavenging 0;, provide a defense against it and against any reactive radical species which can be derived from it

1,139 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The in-vitro development of 1-cell embryos beyond the 2-cell stage in response to the removal of glucose and the addition of glutamine to the culture medium suggests that glucose may block some essential metabolic process, and that glutamine may be a preferred energy substrate during early development for these mouse embryos.
Abstract: One-cell CF-1 x B6SJLF1/J embryos, which usually exhibit a 2-cell block to development in vitro, have been cultured to the blastocyst stage using CZB medium and a glucose washing procedure. CZB medium is a further modification of modified BMOC-2 containing an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio of 116, 1 mM-glutamine and 0.1 mM-EDTA but lacking glucose. Continuous culture of one-cell embryos in CZB medium allowed 83% of embryos to develop beyond the 2-cell stage of which 63% were morulae at 72 h of culture, but blastocysts did not develop. However, washing embryos into CZB medium containing glucose after 48 h of culture (3-4-cell stage) was sufficient to allow development to proceed, with 48% of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage by 96 h of culture. Exposure of embryos to glucose was only necessary from the 3-4-cell stage through the early morula stage since washing back into medium CZB without glucose at 72 h of culture still promoted the development of 50% of embryos to the blastocyst stage. The presence of glucose in this medium for the first 48 h of culture (1-cell to 4-cell stage) was detrimental to embryo development. Glutamine, however, exerted a beneficial effect on embryo development from the 1-cell to the 4-cell stage although its presence was not required for development to proceed during the final 48 h of culture. Blastocysts which developed under optimum conditions contained an average of 33.7 total cells. The in-vitro development of 1-cell embryos beyond the 2-cell stage in response to the removal of glucose and the addition of glutamine to the culture medium suggests that glucose may block some essential metabolic process, and that glutamine may be a preferred energy substrate during early development for these mouse embryos.

1,119 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This communication describes the successful culture of one-cell to eight-cell sheep ova and one- cell and eight- cell cattle ova to the morula and blastocyst stages and reports a high embryo survival after transfer of cultured Ova to recipient animals.
Abstract: Fertilized sheep and cattle ova have not been reported to develop readily during culture in vitro. Up to 60% of sheep morulae develop normally during culture (Moor & Cragle, 1971) but earlier cleavage stages undergo limited development (Hancock, 1963; Kraemer, 1966; Tervit & McDonald, 1969; Moore, 1970) and it has been suggested that there is a block to development in vitro at the eightto twelve-cell stage (Wintenberger, Dauzier & Thibault, 1953). Only the early cleavage stages of cattle ova have been cultured and these have not been reported to develop beyond the twenty-four-cell stage in vitro (Thibault, 1966; Brinster, 1968; Sreenan, 1968; Sreenan, Scanlon & Gordon, 1968). This communication describes the successful culture of one-cell to eight-cell sheep ova and one-cell and eight-cell cattle ova to the morula and blastocyst stages and reports a high embryo survival after transfer of cultured ova to recipient animals.

1,009 citations