scispace - formally typeset
SciSpace - Your AI assistant to discover and understand research papers | Product Hunt

Journal ArticleDOI

Preimplantation development of in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized ovine zygotes: comparison between coculture on oviduct epithelial cell monolayers and culture under low oxygen atmosphere.

01 Apr 1994-Biology of Reproduction (Society for the Study of Reproduction)-Vol. 50, Iss: 4, pp 715-724

TL;DR: Two distinct culture environments are characterized, each capable of supporting the development of high frequencies of unselected IVMF zygotes to the blastocyst stage in vitro, and survival of the embryo under a reduced oxygen atmosphere is investigated.

AbstractThe roles of medium composition, serum source, embryo coculture, and culture under low O2 conditions on the development of in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized (IVMF) ovine zygotes were investigated in three separate experiments. In the first experiment, the proportion of cocultured IVMF zygotes developing to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher (38.0% vs. 3.5%; p < 0.05) than that of non-cocultured zygotes treated within three embryo culture media (TCM-199 + 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]; bicarbonate-buffered, glucose-free synthetic oviduct fluid medium [mod-SOFM] + 10% FBS; and bicarbonate-buffered BSA-free Tyrode's salt solution [mod-TALP] + 10% FBS) under a 5% CO2 atmosphere in air. In a second experiment, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) proportion of cocultured zygotes placed in TCM-199 medium survived to the blastocyst stage (37.4% blastocysts vs. 23.4% in mod-SOFM). No significant effect of serum (FBS vs. human serum [HS]) was observed on embryonic development, but coculture was confirmed to exert a significant influence on development to the blastocyst stage. In the final experiment, survival of the embryo under a reduced oxygen (5% CO2:5% O2:90% N2) atmosphere was investigated. In contrast to results in the initial experiments, embryonic survival was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the non-cocultured treatment groups (21.9% blastocysts vs. 0.4% for cocultured zygotes). Serum source also had a significant (p < 0.05) influence upon the development of non-cocultured zygotes: 32.3% of zygotes cultured with HS progressed to the blastocyst stage vs. 11.5% of zygotes cultured in FBS-supplemented medium. These results have characterized two distinct culture environments, each capable of supporting the development of high frequencies of unselected IVMF zygotes to the blastocyst stage in vitro.

Topics: Embryo culture (57%), Blastocyst (54%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is now common to add antioxidant compounds to culture media, but maintaining the pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in embryos through such supplementation is a complex problem.
Abstract: Oxidative stress is involved in the aetiology of defective embryo development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may originate from embryo metabolism and/or embryo surroundings. Embryo metabolism generates ROS via several enzymatic mechanisms. The relative contribution of each source seems different depending on the species, the stage of development, and the culture conditions. Several exogenous factors and culture conditions can enhance the production of ROS by embryos. ROS can alter most types of cellular molecules, and also induce development block and retardation. Multiple mechanisms of embryo protection against ROS exist, and these have complementary actions. External protection, present in follicular and tubal fluids, mainly comprises non-enzymatic antioxidants such as hypotaurine, taurine and ascorbic acid. Internal protection mainly comprises antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Transcripts encoding for these enzymes are present in the oocyte, embryo and oviduct. It may be important that these transcripts are stored during oocyte maturation in order to allow the embryo to acquire the aptitude to develop. It is now common to add antioxidant compounds to culture media. Nevertheless, maintaining the pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in embryos through such supplementation is a complex problem. Further studies are necessary to limit oxidative stress during embryo culture.

1,093 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent improvements of embryo production and freezing technologies could be used for constitution of flocks without risks of disease transmission and will allow wider propagation of valuable genes in small ruminants populations in the future.
Abstract: This review presents an overview of the technical bases of in vivo and in vitro embryo production in sheep and goat. The current limitations of in vivo production, such as variability of response to the hormonal treatment, fertilization failure in females showing a high ovulatory response, and the importance of premature regressed CL in the goat, are described along with possibilities for improvement. The new prospects offered by in vitro embryo production, by repeated ovum pick-up from live females and by juvenile breeding, are presented along with their limiting steps and research priorities. The recent improvements of embryo production and freezing technologies could be used for constitution of flocks without risks of disease transmission and will allow wider propagation of valuable genes in small ruminants populations in the future.

299 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Many modifiable conditions exist in an ART setting that may aid in reducing the toxic effects of ROS, and the main objective of this review is to provide ART personnel with all the necessary information regarding the development of oxidative stress in anART setting.
Abstract: Objective The manipulation of gametes and embryos in an in vitro environment when performing assisted reproductive techniques (ART) carries the risk of exposure of these cells to supraphysiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The main objective of this review is to provide ART personnel with all the necessary information regarding the development of oxidative stress in an ART setting, as well as the sources of ROS and the mechanisms of oxidative stress–induced damage during ART procedures. The impact of oxidative stress on ART outcome and the different strategies designed to prevent it are also discussed. Design Review of international scientific literature. A question-and-answer format was adopted in an attempt to convey comprehensive information in a simple yet focused manner. Result(s) The pO 2 to which gametes and the embryo are normally exposed in vivo is significantly lower than in vitro. This results in increased production of ROS. Increase in levels of ROS without a concomitant rise in antioxidant defenses leads to oxidative stress. Lipid, protein, and DNA damage have all been associated with oxidative stress. This may ultimately result in suboptimal ART success rates. Conclusion(s) Many modifiable conditions exist in an ART setting that may aid in reducing the toxic effects of ROS.

282 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate that exposure to some in vitro environments during the first 7 days of life can profoundly influence fetal and placental development in cattle.
Abstract: In vitro systems are commonly used for the production of bovine embryos. Comparisons between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos illustrate that the morphology of preimplantation-stage embryos differ significantly, the survival of embryos and fetuses is decreased, the size distributions of the populations of conceptuses and fetuses are altered throughout gestation, and placental development is significantly changed. Taken together these findings indicate that exposure to some in vitro environments during the first 7 days of life can profoundly influence fetal and placental development in cattle. An understanding of how in vitro oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo culture systems influence both fetal and placental development should result in systems that consistently produce normal embryos, fetuses, and calves.

239 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jeremy G. Thompson1
TL;DR: Compounds such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), NaN(3) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have been shown to increase embryo development and quality of resulting embryos, demonstrating that the process of ATP production is a key regulator of in vitro embryo development.
Abstract: At the beginning of the 1990s, co-culture of cattle and sheep embryos was the most favoured method to support embryo development, but the use of this system has hampered progress in raising the efficiency of embryo production. Furthermore, little was known of the requirements of embryos and the biochemistry of early embryo development. As the decade progressed, energy metabolism studies improved our understanding of the energy substrate requirements for embryo development. Furthermore, an appreciation of the reproductive tract environment increased. This resulted in more "defined" systems, which have evolved further in the development of "sequential" media systems, where components change in accordance to the needs of the embryo. Nevertheless, wholly defined systems, such as the replacement of albumin with PVA, are less able to support similar levels of development as protein-containing medium, and the resulting embryos are metabolically compromised. This highlights the nutritive role of albumin. One area in which much work has been conducted, but yet no unifying theory has emerged, is that of the interactive roles of growth factors (including autocrine/paracrine), cytokines and extra-cellular matrix molecules in the development of a viable embryo. A new concept is that of regulation of energy metabolism. Compounds such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), NaN(3) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have been shown to increase embryo development and quality of resulting embryos. This demonstrates that the process of ATP production is a key regulator of in vitro embryo development.

197 citations


Cites background from "Preimplantation development of in v..."

  • ...Furthermore, positive factors influencing embryo development, such as a low O environment and low glucose levels, which have been attributed to the success2 Ž .of co-culture conditions Watson et al., 1994b; Edwards et al., 1997 , were first identified using defined systems....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: SUMMARY A general class of regression models for ordinal data is developed and discussed. These models utilize the ordinal nature of the data by describing various modes of stochastic ordering and this eliminates the need for assigning scores or otherwise assuming cardinality instead of ordinality. Two models in particular, the proportional odds and the proportional hazards models are likely to be most useful in practice because of the simplicity of their interpretation. These linear models are shown to be multivariate extensions of generalized linear models. Extensions to non-linear models are discussed and it is shown that even here the method of iteratively reweighted least squares converges to the maximum likelihood estimate, a property which greatly simplifies the necessary computation. Applications are discussed with the aid of examples.

3,400 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A procedure to obtain high and repeatable fertilization frequencies for bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen-thawed sperm was developed and Heparin was the most important factor in increasing IVF frequencies.
Abstract: A procedure to obtain high and repeatable fertilization frequencies for bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen-thawed sperm was developed. IVF frequency of in vitro matured oocytes was increased by a swimup sperm separation procedure (P=0.01) or treatment of sperm with the glycosaminoglycan heparin (P=0.0001), but the two factors did not interact (P=0.23). Heparin was the most important factor in increasing IVF frequencies. The fertilization frequency was not affected by the batch of oocytes used (P=0.38), but bull effects were present (P<0.05). Within a bull, the IVF system was highly repeatable and varied between trials no more than +/- 12% in fertilization frequency with an overall fertilization frequency of 299 379 (79%) on four trials over four bulls. In vivo matured oocytes fertilized in vitro were transferred to ewe or heifer oviducts. Morulae or blastocysts were recovered from ewes after four to five days, while conceptuses were present in the bovine after 25 days (diagnosed by ultrasound). Embryonic development from the IVF system either pre- or postimplantation was normal.

1,142 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Two Faces of Oxygen Molecular oxygen is both benign and malign and the superoxide dismutases, by catalytically scavenging 0;, provide a defense against it and against any reactive radical species which can be derived from it.
Abstract: The Two Faces of Oxygen Molecular oxygen is both benign and malign On the one hand it provides enormous advantages and on the other it imposes a universal toxicity This toxicity is largely due to the intermediates of oxygen reduction, ie 0;, H202, and OH·, and any organism that avails itself of the benefits of oxygen does so at the cost of maintaining an elaborate system of defenses against these intermediates We will here concern ourselves with the superoxide dismutases which, by catalytically scavenging 0;, provide a defense against it and against any reactive radical species which can be derived from it

1,108 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The in-vitro development of 1-cell embryos beyond the 2-cell stage in response to the removal of glucose and the addition of glutamine to the culture medium suggests that glucose may block some essential metabolic process, and that glutamine may be a preferred energy substrate during early development for these mouse embryos.
Abstract: One-cell CF-1 x B6SJLF1/J embryos, which usually exhibit a 2-cell block to development in vitro, have been cultured to the blastocyst stage using CZB medium and a glucose washing procedure. CZB medium is a further modification of modified BMOC-2 containing an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio of 116, 1 mM-glutamine and 0.1 mM-EDTA but lacking glucose. Continuous culture of one-cell embryos in CZB medium allowed 83% of embryos to develop beyond the 2-cell stage of which 63% were morulae at 72 h of culture, but blastocysts did not develop. However, washing embryos into CZB medium containing glucose after 48 h of culture (3-4-cell stage) was sufficient to allow development to proceed, with 48% of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage by 96 h of culture. Exposure of embryos to glucose was only necessary from the 3-4-cell stage through the early morula stage since washing back into medium CZB without glucose at 72 h of culture still promoted the development of 50% of embryos to the blastocyst stage. The presence of glucose in this medium for the first 48 h of culture (1-cell to 4-cell stage) was detrimental to embryo development. Glutamine, however, exerted a beneficial effect on embryo development from the 1-cell to the 4-cell stage although its presence was not required for development to proceed during the final 48 h of culture. Blastocysts which developed under optimum conditions contained an average of 33.7 total cells. The in-vitro development of 1-cell embryos beyond the 2-cell stage in response to the removal of glucose and the addition of glutamine to the culture medium suggests that glucose may block some essential metabolic process, and that glutamine may be a preferred energy substrate during early development for these mouse embryos.

1,096 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This communication describes the successful culture of one-cell to eight-cell sheep ova and one- cell and eight- cell cattle ova to the morula and blastocyst stages and reports a high embryo survival after transfer of cultured Ova to recipient animals.
Abstract: Fertilized sheep and cattle ova have not been reported to develop readily during culture in vitro. Up to 60% of sheep morulae develop normally during culture (Moor & Cragle, 1971) but earlier cleavage stages undergo limited development (Hancock, 1963; Kraemer, 1966; Tervit & McDonald, 1969; Moore, 1970) and it has been suggested that there is a block to development in vitro at the eightto twelve-cell stage (Wintenberger, Dauzier & Thibault, 1953). Only the early cleavage stages of cattle ova have been cultured and these have not been reported to develop beyond the twenty-four-cell stage in vitro (Thibault, 1966; Brinster, 1968; Sreenan, 1968; Sreenan, Scanlon & Gordon, 1968). This communication describes the successful culture of one-cell to eight-cell sheep ova and one-cell and eight-cell cattle ova to the morula and blastocyst stages and reports a high embryo survival after transfer of cultured ova to recipient animals.

982 citations