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Journal ArticleDOI

Preliminary studies on friction welding of sintered P/M steel preforms to wrought mild steel

01 Mar 2006-Science and Technology of Welding and Joining (Maney Publishing)-Vol. 11, Iss: 2, pp 183-190

AbstractContinuous drive friction welding studies on sintered powder metallurgical (P/M) steel preforms–wrought mild steel combination are reported in the present study. The work is a preliminary study to optimise the friction welding parameters and data generated by the present work is expected to contribute to friction welding of dissimilar and similar sintered P/M preforms to wrought metals or sintered P/M preforms – a planned future research work. Sound welds were obtained with all welding parameter combinations studied. The mechanical properties of welds were comparable to those of sintered P/M steel. Sintered P/M preforms deformed to a greater extent than wrought mild steel due to their low flow stress and thermal conductivity. The sintered density and other properties of the P/M preforms were found to dictate the deformation at the interface and consequently the weld strength. The results indicate that the current approach can be extended to other combinations of sintered P/M preforms.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Friction welding is now well established as one of the most economical and highly productive methods in joining similar and dissimilar metals. It is widely used in automotive and aerospace industrial applications. Friction welding is often the only viable alternative in this field to overcome the difficulties encountered in joining the materials with widely varying physical characteristics. This process employs a machine that is designed to convert mechanical energy into heat at the joint to weld using relative movement between workpieces, without the use of electrical energy or heat from other sources. This review deals with the fundamental understanding of the process. The focus is on the mechanism of friction welding, types of relative motions of the process, influence of parameters, heat generation in the process, understanding the deformation, microstructure and the properties of similar and dissimilar welded materials.

154 citations


Cites background from "Preliminary studies on friction wel..."

  • ...Rao et al.(90) reported on the continuous drive friction welding of sintered P/M steel preforms to wrought mild steel....

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  • ...Rao et al.90 reported on the continuous drive friction welding of sintered P/M steel preforms to wrought mild steel....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The present investigation attempts to understand the friction welding characteristics of sintered P/M steel preforms–wrought copper dissimilar parts. In order to achieve sound weld between these two materials the process parameters were optimized and inferred that the preforms of lower densities with lower process parameters yields quality weldments, established through post-weld tests. This study also envisages the influence of process parameters which include resident preform densities, friction pressure, upset pressure, and burn-off length on microstructure and mechanical properties of the welds. This work consolidates information on the aspects of joining P/M component with wrought materials for practical execution.

53 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: structural optimization, fatigue design, frames, platedstructures, residual welding stresses and distortions,static stresses in welded connections, hollow sections,welding technology, applications, applied mechanics.Authors are experts from 20 countries, ensuring awide spectrum and importance of the themes covered.The International Institute of Welding (IIW) andmany other sponsors helped organizers to collect thesevaluable studies, which provide an important referencefor civil and mechanical engineers, architects, design-ers and fabricators, as well as managers in a rangeof industries including building, transport, materialshandling, shipbuilding, aircraft, chemical and offshoreengineering.Most of the work relate to structural optimization,in which the structural safety and fitness for productionare guaranteed by fulfilling the design and fabricationconstraints and the economy is achieved by minimiza-tion of a cost function. Welding technology and stressesarising from welded connections represent a significantpart of the remaining papers. The book includes studieson structural analysis and design concerning fracture,instability, large deformations, fatigue, earthquake andfire loading.Papers can help the work of engineers, designers,producers, managers and researchers in designing andproducing competitive welded structures.

9 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
16 Dec 2009
TL;DR: Friction welding was carried out with pre-determined process parameters and the effect of initial geometry on friction welding is illustrated and the quality of welds was assessed.
Abstract: The joining of copper to aluminum is inevitable for certain application in the electrical industry due to good conductivity and response offered by copper, aluminum for weight reduction. Whilst in the majority of cases, aluminum and copper can be joined by adhesive bonding, mechanical fastening, fusion welding and solid-phase welding techniques. Friction welding is well known for its ability to weld aluminum to many metals and consequently is being considered seriously. The present study describes about producing a sound joint between two dissimilar metals of pre-strained aluminum to commercially pure copper. Commercial pure aluminum is strained to reduce the disparity in strength level and the effect of pre-strain on friction welding is envisaged. The stronger metal (copper) in this combination is further weakened by intentionally removing some of the material so that a sound joint is obtained. Friction welding was carried out with pre-determined process parameters and the effect of initial geometry on friction welding is illustrated. Post weld characterization such as mechanical and microstructural studies of these welds was carried out to assess the quality of welds.

3 citations


Cites background from "Preliminary studies on friction wel..."

  • ...Recent work had revealed an interesting observation that, the differential strength of the two dissimilar metals during friction welding resulted in causing more plastic deformation at the expense of poor weld joint [3]....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2008
Abstract: In this study, the dissimilar friction welding of a medium C45 (AISI 1040) carbon steel and powder metallurgically produced tool steel 1.3344PM (AISI M3:2) (Vanadis 23) was investigated. Round bars of 11,3 mm diameter in hot-rolled and normalized condition were used. The welding experiments were carried out by an industrial friction welding machine with different friction welding parameters determined from pre-experimental studies and literature. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 650 °C for 4 hours was also applied. Variations of microhardness were measured along the rod axis with 50g test load in all joints and the welding zones were examined with light optical microscope (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) including both as-welded and PWHTed samples.

2 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Continuous drive friction welding studies on austenitic–ferritic stainless steel combination has been attempted in this investigation. Parameter optimization, microstructure–mechanical property correlation and fracture behaviour is a major contribution of the study. Sound welds are obtained at certain weld parameter combinations only. The mechanical properties of dissimilar metal welds are comparable to those of ferritic stainless steel welds. Evaluation of the joints for resistance to pitting corrosion revealed that the dissimilar welds exhibit lower resistance to pitting corrosion compared to the ferritic and austenitic stainless steel welds. Interface on the austenitic stainless steel side exhibited higher residual stress possibly due to its higher flow stress and higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

217 citations

Book
01 Jan 1985
Abstract: Diffusion bonding of materials , Diffusion bonding of materials , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

210 citations


"Preliminary studies on friction wel..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, for some applications, P/M parts may have to be joined to one another or with other materials as integrated components.(12,13) To enumerate these attributes, it becomes necessary to understand the behaviour of joining or welding P/M parts....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The study of the metallurgy of the interface of metal/metal friction-welded components is essential for understanding the quality of bonding. We have studied, through optical and electron microscopy, and tensile strength measurements, the bonding properties of Al and interstitial free steel and Al and stainless steel friction-welded components. The samples were produced by varying the friction time and rotational speed, friction pressure, upsetting pressure, and upsetting time constant at optimized values reported earlier. The bonding occurs over an intermetallic phase, which, when too thick, influences the bonding properties adversely. The thickness of the intermetallic interlayer depends linearly of on the square root of the friction time, indicating that the growth is caused by diffusion. The effect of oxidation on the bonding is also studied on samples prepared under argon atmosphere and normal atmosphere.

137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The present study investigates the mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction-welded steel-aluminum and aluminium-copper bars, a friction welder having been designed and built for this purpose. The effects of the three main parameters: speed of rotation; friction load; and duration of welding; on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the weld such as the yield, tensile and breaking strengths, are studied experimentally and statistically. The metallurgical properties of the weld are examined using electron and optical microscopy.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this study, standard AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel and AISI 4340 steel couple were welded by friction welding process using five different rotational speeds. The joining performances of AISI 304L/AISI 4340 friction-welded joints were studied and the influences of rotational speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were also estimated. The microstructural properties of heat affected zone (HAZ) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microhardness across the interface perpendicular to the interface was measured and the strength of the joints was determined with tensile tests. The experimental results indicate that the tensile strength of friction-welded 304L/4340 components were markedly affected by joining rotational speed selected.

117 citations