TL;DR: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy improved survival among patients with potentially curable esophageal or esophagogastric-junction cancer and the regimen was associated with acceptable adverse-event rates.
Abstract: A B S T R AC T BACKGROUND The role of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with esophageal or esophagogastric-junction cancer is not well established. We compared chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery with surgery alone in this patient population. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with resectable tumors to receive surgery alone or weekly administration of carboplatin (doses titrated to achieve an area under the curve of 2 mg per milliliter per minute) and paclitaxel (50 mg per square meter of body-surface area) for 5 weeks and concurrent radiotherapy (41.4 Gy in 23 fractions, 5 days per week), followed by surgery. RESULTS From March 2004 through December 2008, we enrolled 368 patients, 366 of whom were included in the analysis: 275 (75%) had adenocarcinoma, 84 (23%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, and 7 (2%) had large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Of the 366 patients, 178 were randomly assigned to chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, and 188 to surgery alone. The most common major hematologic toxic effects in the chemoradiotherapy–surgery group were leukopenia (6%) and neutropenia (2%); the most common major nonhematologic toxic effects were anorexia (5%) and fatigue (3%). Complete resection with no tumor within 1 mm of the resection margins (R0) was achieved in 92% of patients in the chemoradiotherapy–surgery group versus 69% in the surgery group (P<0.001). A pathological complete response was achieved in 47 of 161 patients (29%) who underwent resection after chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative complications were similar in the two treatment groups, and in-hospital mortality was 4% in both. Median overall survival was 49.4 months in the chemoradiotherapy– surgery group versus 24.0 months in the surgery group. Overall survival was significantly better in the chemoradiotherapy–surgery group (hazard ratio, 0.657; 95% confidence interval, 0.495 to 0.871; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative chemoradiotherapy improved survival among patients with potentially curable esophageal or esophagogastric-junction cancer. The regimen was associated with acceptable adverse-event rates. (Funded by the Dutch Cancer Foundation [KWF Kankerbestrijding]; Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR487.)
TL;DR: Long-term follow-up confirms the overall survival benefits for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with clinically resectable, locally advanced cancer of the oesophagus or Oesophagogastric junction and shows a significant increase in 5-year overall survival.
Abstract: Summary Background Initial results of the ChemoRadiotherapy for Oesophageal cancer followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction showed a significant increase in 5-year overall survival in favour of the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery group after a median of 45 months' follow-up. In this Article, we report the long-term results after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Methods Patients with clinically resectable, locally advanced cancer of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction (clinical stage T1N1M0 or T2–3N0–1M0, according to the TNM cancer staging system, sixth edition) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio with permuted blocks of four or six to receive either weekly administration of five cycles of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (intravenous carboplatin [AUC 2 mg/mL per min] and intravenous paclitaxel [50 mg/m 2 of body-surface area] for 23 days) with concurrent radiotherapy (41·4 Gy, given in 23 fractions of 1·8 Gy on 5 days per week) followed by surgery, or surgery alone. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed by intention-to-treat. No adverse event data were collected beyond those noted in the initial report of the trial. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR487, and has been completed. Findings Between March 30, 2004, and Dec 2, 2008, 368 patients from eight participating centres (five academic centres and three large non-academic teaching hospitals) in the Netherlands were enrolled into this study and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups: 180 to surgery plus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and 188 to surgery alone. Two patients in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group withdrew consent, so a total of 366 patients were analysed (178 in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery group and 188 in the surgery alone group). Of 171 patients who received any neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in this group, 162 (95%) were able to complete the entire neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimen. After a median follow-up for surviving patients of 84·1 months (range 61·1–116·8, IQR 70·7–96·6), median overall survival was 48·6 months (95% CI 32·1–65·1) in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery group and 24·0 months (14·2–33·7) in the surgery alone group (HR 0·68 [95% CI 0·53–0·88]; log-rank p=0·003). Median overall survival for patients with squamous cell carcinomas was 81·6 months (95% CI 47·2–116·0) in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery group and 21·1 months (15·4–26·7) in the surgery alone group (HR 0·48 [95% CI 0·28–0·83]; log-rank p=0·008); for patients with adenocarcinomas, it was 43·2 months (24·9–61·4) in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery group and 27·1 months (13·0–41·2) in the surgery alone group (HR 0·73 [95% CI 0·55–0·98]; log-rank p=0·038). Interpretation Long-term follow-up confirms the overall survival benefits for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy when added to surgery in patients with resectable oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional cancer. This improvement is clinically relevant for both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma subtypes. Therefore, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy according to the CROSS trial followed by surgical resection should be regarded as a standard of care for patients with resectable locally advanced oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional cancer. Funding Dutch Cancer Foundation (KWF Kankerbestrijding).
TL;DR: It is reported that circulating tumor cells become trapped within NETs in vitro under static and dynamic conditions and NETs are identified as potential therapeutic targets in the context of systemic infection.
Abstract: The majority of patients with cancer undergo at least one surgical procedure as part of their treatment. Severe postsurgical infection is associated with adverse oncologic outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils, which function as the first line of defense during infections, facilitate cancer progression. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular neutrophil-derived DNA webs released in response to inflammatory cues that trap and kill invading pathogens. The role of NETs in cancer progression is entirely unknown. We report that circulating tumor cells become trapped within NETs in vitro under static and dynamic conditions. In a murine model of infection using cecal ligation and puncture, we demonstrated microvascular NET deposition and consequent trapping of circulating lung carcinoma cells within DNA webs. NET trapping was associated with increased formation of hepatic micrometastases at 48 hours and gross metastatic disease burden at 2 weeks following tumor cell injection. These effects were abrogated by NET inhibition with DNAse or a neutrophil elastase inhibitor. These findings implicate NETs in the process of cancer metastasis in the context of systemic infection and identify NETs as potential therapeutic targets.
Cites background from "Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for ..."
...Currently, locoregional control in the form of complete oncologic resection remains an essential curative modality for nearly all solid tumors and provides improved overall and disease-free survival (2, 4, 5)....
TL;DR: In the EU, the highest age-standardised incidence rates for oesophageal cancer are in the Netherlands for men and the UK for women, and variation between countries is high and may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.
Abstract: Oesophageal cancer is the 19th most common cancer in the European Union (EU), with cca 45 900 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (1% of the total). In the EU, the highest age-standardised incidence rates for oesophageal cancer are in the Netherlands for men and the UK for women . Variation between countries is high and may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.
Abstract: Background Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is effective in metastatic gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. This study reports on the safety and efficacy of the docetaxel-based triplet FLOT (fluorouracil plus leucovorin, oxaliplatin and docetaxel) as a perioperative therapy for patients with locally advanced, resectable tumours. Methods In this controlled, open-label, phase 2/3 trial, we randomly assigned 716 patients with histologically-confirmed advanced clinical stage cT2 or higher or nodal positive stage (cN+), or both, resectable tumours, with no evidence of distant metastases, via central interactive web-based-response system, to receive either three pre-operative and three postoperative 3-week cycles of 50 mg/m2 epirubicin and 60 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1 plus either 200 mg/m2 fluorouracil as continuous intravenous infusion or 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine orally on days 1 to 21 (ECF/ECX; control group) or four preoperative and four postoperative 2-week cycles of 50 mg/m2 docetaxel, 85 mg/m2 oxaliplatin, 200 mg/m2 leucovorin and 2600 mg/m2 fluorouracil as 24-h infusion on day 1 (FLOT; experimental group). The primary outcome of the trial was overall survival (superiority) analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01216644. Findings Between Aug 8, 2010, and Feb 10, 2015, 716 patients were randomly assigned to treatment in 38 German hospitals or with practice-based oncologists. 360 patients were assigned to ECF/ECX and 356 patients to FLOT. Overall survival was increased in the FLOT group compared with the ECF/ECX group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·77; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.63 to 0·94]; median overall survival, 50 months [38·33 to not reached] vs 35 months [27·35 to 46·26]). The number of patients with related serious adverse events (including those occurring during hospital stay for surgery) was similar in the two groups (96 [27%] in the ECF/ECX group vs 97 [27%] in the FLOT group), as was the number of toxic deaths (two [ Interpretation In locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, perioperative FLOT improved overall survival compared with perioperative ECF/ECX. Funding The German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe), Sanofi-Aventis, Chugai, and Stiftung Leben mit Krebs Foundation.
TL;DR: Compared with surgery alone, NCRT with cisplatin plus fluorouracil does not improve R0 resection rate or survival but enhances postoperative mortality in patients with stage I or II EC.
Abstract: Purpose Although often investigated in locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC), the impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) in early stages is unknown. The aim of this multicenter randomized phase III trial was to assess whether NCRT improves outcomes for patients with stage I or II EC. Methods The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were disease-free survival, postoperative morbidity, in-hospital mortality, R0 resection rate, and prognostic factor identification. From June 2000 to June 2009, 195 patients in 30 centers were randomly assigned to surgery alone (group S; n = 97) or NCRT followed by surgery (group CRT; n = 98). CRT protocol was 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with two courses of concomitant chemotherapy composed of fluorouracil 800 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2. We report the long-term results of the final analysis, after a median follow-up of 93.6 months. Results Pretreatment disease was stage I in 19.0%, IIA in 53.3%, and IIB in 27.7% of patients. For group...
TL;DR: The results for 20 world regions are presented, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers, and striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.
Abstract: Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.
TL;DR: In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival.
Abstract: Background A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves survival among patients with incurable locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. We assessed whether the addition of a perioperative regimen of ECF to surgery improves outcomes among patients with potentially curable gastric cancer. Methods We randomly assigned patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, esophagogastric junction, or lower esophagus to either perioperative chemotherapy and surgery (250 patients) or surgery alone (253 patients). Chemotherapy consisted of three preoperative and three postoperative cycles of intravenous epirubicin (50 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and cisplatin (60 mg per square meter) on day 1, and a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (200 mg per square meter per day) for 21 days. The primary end point was overall survival. Results ECF-related adverse effects were similar to those previously reported among patients with advanced gastric cancer. Rates of postoperative complications were similar in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and the surgery group (46 percent and 45 percent, respectively), as were the numbers of deaths within 30 days after surgery. The resected tumors were significantly smaller and less advanced in the perioperative-chemotherapy group. With a median follow-up of four years, 149 patients in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and 170 in the surgery group had died. As compared with the surgery group, the perioperative-chemotherapy group had a higher likelihood of overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.93; P = 0.009; five-year survival rate, 36 percent vs. 23 percent) and of progression-free survival (hazard ratio for progression, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001). Conclusions In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN93793971.)
TL;DR: Three elementary measures of cancer frequency are confined ourselves to: incidence, mortality and prevalence.
Abstract: Although the general idea of ‘burden’ of a disease to a community seems fairly straightforward, there are multiple dimensions in which it may be expressed, either in terms of disease frequency (the ‘need’ for services) or the demand which it places upon them. In this review, we confine ourselves to three elementary measures of cancer frequency: incidence, mortality and prevalence. Incidence is the number of new cases occurring. It can be expressed as an absolute number of cases per year (the volume of new patients presenting for treatment) or as a rate per 100 000 persons per year. The latter provides an approximation to the average risk of developing a cancer, and is necessary if we wish to compare the risk of disease between populations (countries, ethnic groups, or different time periods within a country, for example). When considering the impact of primary prevention strategies, a reduction in incidence (occurrence of new cases) is the appropriate statistic to use. Mortality is the number of deaths occurring, and the mortality rate the number of deaths per 100 000 persons per year. The number of deaths provides one measure (and a rather unambiguous one) of the outcome or impact of cancer. It is the product of the incidence and the fatality of a given cancer. Fatality, the inverse of survival, is the proportion of cancer cases that die and this is generally assumed to be the most severe sequel of the disease. Mortality rates therefore measure the average risk to the population of dying from a specific cancer, while fatality (1-survival) represents the probability that an individual with cancer will die from it. Mortality rates are sometimes used as a convenient proxy measure of the risk of acquiring the disease (incidence) when comparing different groups, since they may be more generally available (as described below). However, when used in this way, an assumption of equal survival/fatality in the populations being compared is introduced. Since this is rarely correct—there are, for example, quite large differences between countries—it is safer to use mortality as a measure of outcome rather than occurrence. Prevalence: There is no agreed definition of ‘prevalence’ of cancer. Strictly speaking, it is the number of persons in a defined population alive at a given time who have had cancer diagnosed at some time in the past. However, the resource requirements for treating newly diagnosed patients are very different from those for supporting long-term survivors. Thus, overall prevalence is not particularly useful for healthcare planning purposes, especially as a large proportion of long-term survivors can be considered cured. Partial prevalence, which limits the number of patients to those diagnosed during a fixed time in the past, is therefore a more useful measure of cancer burden. Prevalence for cases diagnosed within 1, 3 and 5 years are likely to be of relevance to the different stages of cancer therapy, namely, initial treatment (1 year), clinical follow-up (3 years) and cure (5 years). Patients who are still alive 5 years after diagnosis are usually considered cured since the death rates of such patients are similar to those in the general population. There are some exceptions, primarily that of female breast cancer, for which the risk of death remains higher than the general population for many more years. Several other more complex statistics have been used to measure the impact of disease, particularly in health economics. They include person-years of life lost (how many years of normal lifespan are lost due to deaths from cancer). This measurement may be refined by giving different values to life-years at different ages, so that a year saved at, for example, age 20 years, is valued