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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13691058.2020.1715482

#PrEP4Love : success and stigma following release of the first sex-positive PrEP public health campaign.

04 Mar 2021-Culture, Health & Sexuality (Cult Health Sex)-Vol. 23, Iss: 3, pp 397-413
Abstract: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective yet under-utilised method for preventing HIV transmission in high-risk groups. Despite ongoing social marketing to increase PrEP awareness, few studies have evaluated public responses. This paper contextualises negative responses to Chicago's PrEP4Love campaign. In February 2016, a sex-positive ad campaign called PrEP4Love was launched online and throughout public spaces in Chicago. A gender and sexuality inclusive campaign, PrEP4Love is intended to be culturally responsive and sex positive, while retaining a focus on risk reduction. Advertisements prominently feature Black sexual minority men, and Black transgender women, and were strategically placed in diverse Chicago neighbourhoods. In response, there were 212 new callers to the PrEPLine during the two-month study period. Negative responses were concerned with: negatively depicting Black homosexuality (4), general anti-LGBTQ comments (7), adverse effects on children (6), sexually explicit nature (5), and general stigmatisation of racial minorities (4). Discussion focuses on sex-positive frameworks, normalising intimacy, stigma and historical mistrust of medical and pharmaceutical institutions, and the social meanings of biomedical prevention technologies (e.g. PrEP) in relation to dominant norms of sexuality and gender. This study is the first to investigate public responses to a sex-positive PrEP campaign. More studies of PrEP social marketing are needed to evaluate targeted public health campaigns to guide future PrEP promotion strategies.

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Topics: Human sexuality (53%), Homosexuality (52%), Social marketing (51%) ... read more
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21 May 2019-
Abstract: Chapter 2 shows how blacks in Los Angeles and Rio de Janeiro understand their position within the boundaries of black racial categorization. I analyze how and why they consider themselves black and examine ethnoracial congruency between their black identity and their white partners' assessment of their blackness. I find more ethnoracial congruency between black-white couples in Los Angeles than in Rio de Janeiro. Contrary to many scholars of Brazil, I find that black spouses have a sense of group identity in which they understand blacks as part of their imagined community; this, along with ancestry, physical appearance, and official documentation comprise their black identity. In Los Angeles, black respondents articulated a stronger sense of groupness and perceived history and resistance as elements tying them to other blacks. However, they saw class distinctions, immigrant ancestry, and less fluency in black culture as putting them on the margins of blackness. White husbands and wives understood their black husbands and wives as existing at the margins of what it means to be black in both Rio de Janeiro and Los Angeles. However, they failed to recognize the importance of groupness to their black spouses.

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79 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2009-
Abstract: The Gay Agenda argues that the current gay rights agenda has been overly determined by the culture war and calls for a deliberate step outside of culture war discourse in order to see law reform possibilities that have largely been obscured. When anti-gay forces speak in terms of traditional family values, the paper observes, pro-gay rejoinders tend to come in the form of rights claims accompanied by rhetorical efforts to depict the gay family as morally indistinct from an idealized version of the heterosexual family (i.e., monogamous, bourgeois, and more about love than sex). These dual strategies of rights - especially equality - and normalization have serious costs that have gone under-recognized by the architects of the contemporary gay rights movement. Much of the paper is dedicated to illuminating those costs. The remainder of the paper proposes concrete possibilities for reconstructing a law reform agenda. This part draws on the insights of American Legal Realism, Critical Legal Theory and Queer Theory, which have something real and valuable to offer the gay rights movement - if what participants in that movement want is to combat sexual moralism and to ameliorate the full range of hardships faced by persons associated with marginal sexual or gender identities or practices. The proposed agenda described in this part is less consumed with achieving formal equality between gay and straight people and more interested in using law to create the best possible conditions against which a broad array of people can make choices about how to organize their erotic and domestic lives.

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Topics: Legal realism (54%), Family values (53%), Law reform (53%) ... read more

12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11904-020-00533-Y
Sarah K. Calabrese1Institutions (1)
Abstract: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a safe and effective preventive intervention that could play a central role in ending the HIV epidemic. However, low uptake in general, and among certain social groups in particular, underscores the need to identify and address barriers to PrEP use. PrEP stigma has emerged as a key factor interfering with PrEP interest, uptake, and continuation. The purpose of this article is to describe and contextualize PrEP stigma and to offer recommendations on how to address it in future PrEP implementation initiatives. PrEP users are commonly stereotyped as sexually irresponsible, promiscuous, and immoral. These stereotypes and associated prejudice manifest at multiple levels and discourage PrEP interest and uptake, disrupt PrEP adherence, and motivate PrEP discontinuation. Intersecting forms of stigma may influence the nature, magnitude, and impact of PrEP stigma across social groups and otherwise hinder PrEP use. Current PrEP implementation strategies that narrowly focus on risk and target stigmatized groups with disproportionately high HIV incidence have yielded limited success and are counterproductive to the extent that they perpetuate stigma. Implementation strategies involving more inclusive messaging and further integration of PrEP within healthcare may help to reduce PrEP stigma and mitigate its impact, ultimately increasing PrEP use. PrEP stigma is a barrier to PrEP interest, uptake, and continuation that manifests at multiple levels. Understanding and addressing PrEP stigma requires consideration of its origins and intersections. Targeted, risk-focused implementation strategies perpetuate stigma and undermine use.

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12 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40615-020-00848-X
Jelani Kerr1, Suur D Ayangeakaa1, Ryan Combs1, Lesley M. Harris2  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention can help reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities in the USA. However, the benefits of PrEP have not been equally distributed across races. Community-informed, culturally tailored media has the potential to increase PrEP awareness and acceptability among vulnerable African-American populations. More research is needed to identify media preferences around PrEP for these groups in order to optimize effectiveness of health messaging. This study details the development of a community-informed multimedia (print, digital, Internet radio, website, social media) campaign to increase PrEP awareness among African-American young adults (age 18–29 years). Eleven focus groups with African-American young adults and a community advisory board informed the intervention. Focus group participants expressed concerns with PrEP safety, efficacy, accessibility, the universality of HIV vulnerability, and representation. Campaign elements were then developed based on this feedback. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of culturally tailored multimedia PrEP campaigns.

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Topics: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (55%)

3 Citations


Open access
Tony Sandset1, Kaspar VilladsenInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2019-
Abstract: This article explores recent HIV prevention campaigns for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), focusing on how they integrate pleasure and desire in their calls for self-discipline through a continual use of pharmaceuticals. This emerging type of health promotion, here represented by ads promoting the preventive use of pharmaceuticals, no longer simply approaches target groups with demands to abstain from harmful substances or practices and thus control risks, but also includes messages that recognize individuals’ habits, values, and their desires for pleasure. Drawing on Foucault’s work concerning discipline and security, we suggest that a novel, permissive discipline is emerging in contemporary HIV prevention. Further guided by Barthes’s theory of images, we analyse posters used in prevention campaigns, scrutinizing their culture-specific imagery and linguistic messages, i.e. how the words and images interact. We conclude that these campaigns introduce a new temporality of prevention, one centred on pleasure through the pre-emption and planning that PrEP enables.

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3 Citations


References
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62 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1525822X05279903
Greg Guest1, Arwen Bunce1, Laura Johnson1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 2006-Field Methods
Abstract: Guidelines for determining nonprobabilistic sample sizes are virtually nonexistent. Purposive samples are the most commonly used form of nonprobabilistic sampling, and their size typically relies on the concept of “saturation,” or the point at which no new information or themes are observed in the data. Although the idea of saturation is helpful at the conceptual level, it provides little practical guidance for estimating sample sizes, prior to data collection, necessary for conducting quality research. Using data from a study involving sixty in-depth interviews with women in two West African countries, the authors systematically document the degree of data saturation and variability over the course of thematic analysis. They operationalize saturation and make evidence-based recommendations regarding nonprobabilistic sample sizes for interviews. Based on the data set, they found that saturation occurred within the first twelve interviews, although basic elements for metathemes were present as early as six...

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10,698 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1098214005283748
David R. Thomas1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A general inductive approach for analysis of qualitative evaluation data is described. The purposes for using an inductive approach are to (a) condense raw textual data into a brief, summary format; (b) establish clear links between the evaluation or research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data; and (c) develop a framework of the underlying structure of expe- riences or processes that are evident in the raw data. The general inductive approach provides an easily used and systematic set of procedures for analyzing qualitative data that can produce reliable and valid findings. Although the general inductive approach is not as strong as some other analytic strategies for theory or model development, it does provide a simple, straightforward approach for deriving findings in the context of focused evaluation questions. Many evaluators are likely to find using a general inductive approach less complicated than using other approaches to qualitative data analysis.

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Topics: Experimental data (55%), Qualitative reasoning (55%), Raw data (54%)

6,714 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/160940690600500107
Abstract: In this article, the authors describe how they used a hybrid process of inductive and deductive thematic analysis to interpret raw data in a doctoral study on the role of performance feedback in the self-assessment of nursing practice. The methodological approach integrated data-driven codes with theory-driven ones based on the tenets of social phenomenology. The authors present a detailed exemplar of the staged process of data coding and identification of themes. This process demonstrates how analysis of the raw data from interview transcripts and organizational documents progressed toward the identification of overarching themes that captured the phenomenon of performance feedback as described by participants in the study.

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Topics: Thematic analysis (60%)

6,002 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60809-4
09 Oct 2010-The Lancet
Abstract: Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

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Topics: Mass media (53%), Poison control (52%), News media (51%)

1,566 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301069
Abstract: Bodies of research pertaining to specific stigmatized statuses have typically developed in separate domains and have focused on single outcomes at 1 level of analysis, thereby obscuring the full significance of stigma as a fundamental driver of population health. Here we provide illustrative evidence on the health consequences of stigma and present a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health. Because of its pervasiveness, its disruption of multiple life domains (e.g., resources, social relationships, and coping behaviors), and its corrosive impact on the health of populations, stigma should be considered alongside the other major organizing concepts for research on social determinants of population health.

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Topics: Population health (58%), Social determinants of health (57%), Health equity (56%) ... read more

1,342 Citations