Preparation of Ricinoleic Acid from Castor Oil:A Review.
01 Jan 2022-Journal of Oleo Science-Vol. 71 6, Iss: 6, pp 781-793
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil, and the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM.
Abstract: Castor oil is a vegetable product extracted from Ricinus communis L (castor seed), which is primarily considered an important commercial value for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, coatings, etc. It is rich in hydroxylated fatty acids (ricinoleic acid, 89-92%) and is widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, oleochemical, and agricultural industries. This oil has also been confirmed as a bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and antiherpetic agents, due to the ricinoleic acid having functional groups, such as -COOH, -OH, and -C=C-. Furthermore, it is converted into various acid derivative compounds with several applications. Therefore, this article reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil. Several methods or reaction pathways were employed in the preparation procedure, such as the Twitchell and Colgate-Emery processes, as well as the alkaline catalyzed, transesterification with methyl ricinoleic, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis, respectively. Although each of these preparation methods has advantages and disadvantages, the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM. Besides being a green method, the conversion rate in the hydrolysis process was 96.2 ± 1.5.
TL;DR: In this article , three castor oil adducts with maleic anhydride (MA), methyl nadic anoxide (methyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anoxide), previously synthesized, were incorporated in a concentration of 15 wt% each in PLA and compared with PLA plasticized with natural R.
Abstract: Bio-based plasticizers derived from renewable resources represent a sustainable replacement for petrochemical-based plasticizers. Vegetable oils are widely available, non-toxic and biodegradable, resistant to evaporation, mostly colorless and stable to light and heat, and are a suitable alternative for phthalate plasticizers. Plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) materials containing 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt% natural castor oil (R) were prepared by melt blending to improve the ductility of PLA. Three castor oil adducts with maleic anhydride (MA), methyl nadic anhydride (methyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride) (NA) and hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride (HA), previously synthesized, were incorporated in a concentration of 15 wt% each in PLA and compared with PLA plasticized with natural R. The physico-chemical properties of PLA/R blends were investigated by means of processability, chemical structure, surface wettability, mechanical, rheological and thermal characteristics. The addition of natural and modified R significantly improved the melt processing by decreasing the melt viscosity by ~95%, increased the surface hydrophobicity, enhanced the flexibility by ~14 times in the case of PLA/20R blend and ~11 times in the case of PLA/15R-MA blend as compared with neat PLA. The TG/DTG results showed that the natural R used up to 20 wt% could significantly improve the thermal stability of PLA, similar to the maleic anhydride-modified R. Based on the obtained results, up to 20 wt% natural R and 15 wt% MA-, HA- or NA-modified R might be used as environmentally friendly plasticizers that can improve the overall properties of PLA, depending on the intended food packaging applications.
TL;DR: In this paper , the U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes in the castor genome were identified and the promoters of these snRNA genes were cloned, and their function was examined in castor cells using the particle delivery method.
Abstract: Castor (Ricinus communis) seeds are rich in a type of hydroxy fatty acid called ricinoleic acid, which is in high demand for the production of plant-based plastics, lubricants, and hydraulic oils. However, the high content of ricin, a toxic protein, in these seeds has restricted further expansion in the area of castor cultivation. Therefore, the development of ricin-free castor is needed. Genome editing technology, although successfully applied in several plant species, is still in the developing stages in castor and awaits the identification of an endogenous U6 promoter with robust function. Here, we searched for U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes in the castor genome. This led to the identification of six U6 snRNA genes. The promoters of these U6 snRNA genes were cloned, and their function was examined in castor cells using the particle delivery method. The results showed that a U6 promoter length of approximately 300 bp from the transcription start site was sufficient to activate gene expression. This study provides insights into the endogenous castor U6 promoter sequences and outlines a method for verifying the function of U6 promoters in plants using the particle delivery system.
TL;DR: An awareness of the various uses of the oil can be used to make a strong case for an increase in its production as a vital raw material for the chemical industries.
Abstract: Even though castor oil is inedible, it has long been an article of commerce. This is, in large measure, due to the versatility of the oil. This article discusses the extraction of castor oil and its refining methods and reviews the industrial applications of the oil. Since castor oil is not edible, it could be substituted in many industrial application areas where edible oils are used. An awareness of the various uses of the oil can be used to make a strong case for an increase in its production as a vital raw material for the chemical industries.
TL;DR: The main uses of the lipase from Thermomyces laguginosus will be revised, with special emphasis in the modification of fats and oils, production of biodiesel, resolution of racemic mixtures, enantioselective hydrolysis of prochiral esters and regioselectives process involving sugar preparations.
Abstract: The lipase from Thermomyces laguginosus (formerly Humicola laguginosa) (TLL) is a basophilic and noticeably thermostable enzyme, commercially available in both soluble and immobilized form. Although initially oriented toward the food industry, the enzyme has found applications in many different industrial areas, from biodiesel production to fine chemicals (mainly in enantio and regioselective or specific processes). This review intends to show some of the most relevant aspects of the use of this interesting enzyme. After checking the enzyme features, some of the most efficient methods of TLL immobilization will be commented. Finally, the main uses of the enzyme will be revised, with special emphasis in the modification of fats and oils, production of biodiesel, resolution of racemic mixtures, enantioselective hydrolysis of prochiral esters and regioselective process involving sugar preparations. In many instances, TLL has been compared to other lipases, the advantages or disadvantages of the enzyme will be discussed.
07 Sep 2016
TL;DR: This manuscript provides a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production and discusses novel processing parameters by explaining specific processing parameters involved inCastorOil production.
Abstract: Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the competitiveness of the Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB) in the semi-arid region of Brazil.
Abstract: The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.
••15 Jul 2016
TL;DR: The potential of castor oil in the production of diverse materials with their projected global market potential is highlighted in this paper, where a review gives the background information of castors and its geographical availability, the properties and its uses as bio-based resource for synthesis of various materials.
Abstract: Castor oil is increasingly becoming an important bio-based raw material for industrial applications. The oil is non-edible and can be extracted from castor seeds from the castor plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The oil is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid esters linked to a glycerol. The presence of hydroxyl group, a double bond, carboxylic group and a long chain hydrocarbon in ricinoleic acid (a major component of the oil), offer several possibilities of transforming it into variety of materials. The oil is thus a potential alternative to petroleum-based starting chemicals for the production of materials with variety of properties. Despite this huge potential, very little has recently been reviewed on the use of castor oil as a bio-resource in the production of functional materials. This review therefore highlights the potential of castor oil in the production of these diverse materials with their projected global market potential. The review gives the background information of castor oil and its geographical availability, the properties and its uses as bio-based resource for synthesis of various materials. The review further highlights on the use of castor oil or ricinoleic acid as a green capping agent in the synthesis of nanomaterials.