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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0247640

Presence of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 plasma.

04 Mar 2021-PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science)-Vol. 16, Iss: 3
Abstract: Background Neutralizing-antibody (nAb) is the major focus of most ongoing COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, nAb response against SARS-CoV-2, when present, decays rapidly. Given the myriad roles of antibodies in immune responses, it is possible that antibodies could also mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 via effector mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which we sought to explore here. Methods Plasma of 3 uninfected controls and 20 subjects exposed to, or recovering from, SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected from U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies in the plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing capability of these plasmas was assessed with SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus. ADCC activity was assessed with a calcein release assay. Results SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies were detected in all COVID-19 subjects studied. All but three COVID-19 subjects contained nAb at high potency (>80% neutralization). Plasma from 19/20 of COVID-19 subjects also demonstrated strong ADCC activity against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, including two individuals without nAb against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion Both neutralizing and non-neutralizing COVID-19 plasmas can mediate ADCC. Our findings argue that evaluation of potential vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 should include investigation of the magnitude and durability of ADCC, in addition to nAb.

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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.ABJ1750
Daryl Geers1, Marc C. Shamier1, Susanne Bogers1, Gerco den Hartog  +21 moreInstitutions (2)
25 May 2021-Science immunology
Abstract: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in the spike (S) protein has raised concern about potential immune escape. Here, we studied humoral and cellular immune responses to wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern in a cohort of 121 BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCW). Twenty-three HCW recovered from mild COVID-19 disease and exhibited a recall response with high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific functional antibodies and virus-specific T cells after a single vaccination. Specific immune responses were also detected in seronegative HCW after one vaccination, but a second dose was required to reach high levels of functional antibodies and cellular immune responses in all individuals. Vaccination-induced antibodies cross-neutralized the variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, but the neutralizing capacity and Fc-mediated functionality against B.1.351 was consistently 2- to 4-fold lower than to the homologous virus. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with peptide pools spanning the mutated S regions of B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to detect cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells with variants. Importantly, we observed no differences in CD4+ T-cell activation in response to variant antigens, indicating that the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 S proteins do not escape T-cell-mediated immunity elicited by the wild type S protein. In conclusion, this study shows that some variants can partially escape humoral immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or BNT162b2 vaccination, but S-specific CD4+ T-cell activation is not affected by the mutations in the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants.

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Topics: Immune system (58%), Humoral immunity (58%), Antigen (56%) ... read more

95 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.XCRM.2021.100290
05 May 2021-
Abstract: With the recent approval of highly effective COVID-19 vaccines, functional and lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is currently under investigation as antibody levels in plasma were shown to decline during convalescence. Since the absence of antibodies does not equate to absence of immune memory, we evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cells in convalescent individuals. Here we report a longitudinal assessment of humoral immune responses on 32 donors up to 8 months post-symptom onset. Our observations indicate that anti-Spike and anti-RBD IgM in plasma decay rapidly, whereas the reduction of IgG is less prominent. Neutralizing activity also declines rapidly when compared to Fc-effector functions. Concomitantly, the frequencies of RBD-specific IgM+ B cells wane significantly when compared to RBD-specific IgG+ B cells which remain stable. Our results add to the current understanding of immune memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical for the prevention of secondary infections and vaccine efficacy.

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Topics: Immune system (56%), Antibody (55%), Humoral immunity (54%) ... read more

54 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.11.447942
11 Jun 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Background Although progressive COVID-19 vaccinations provide a significant reduction of infection rate in the short-to mid-term, effective COVID-19 treatments will continue to be an urgent need. Methods We have functionally characterized the anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) prepared from human COVID-19 convalescent plasma. SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization was evaluated by four different methodologies (plaque reduction, virus induced cytotoxicity, TCID50 reduction and immunofluorimetry-based methodology) performed at four different laboratories and using four geographically different SARS-CoV-2 isolates (one each from USA and Italy; two from Spain). Two of the isolates contained the D614G mutation. Neutralization capacity against the original Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 straom and variants (D614G mutant, B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants) was evaluated using a pseudovirus platform expressing the corresponding spike (S) protein. The capacity to induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) was also evaluated. Results All the SARS-CoV-2 isolates tested were effectively neutralized by hIG solutions. This was confirmed by all four methodologies showing potent neutralization capacity. Wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and variants were effectively neutralized as demonstrated using the pseudovirus platform. The hIG solutions had the capacity to induce ADCC and ADCP against SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins but not the E protein. Under our experimental conditions, very low concentrations (25-100 µg IgG/mL) were required to induce both effects. Besides the S protein, we observed a clear and potent effect triggered by antibodies in the hIG solutions against the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Conclusions These results show that, beyond neutralization, other IgG Fc-dependent pathways may play a role in the protection from and/or resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection when using hIG COVID-19 products. This could be especially relevant for the treatment of more neutralization resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

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1 Citations


Posted ContentDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-02659-4
01 Jul 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: This study monitored the long-term immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection in patients who had recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G (anti-N IgG) titer in serum samples collected at a single (N = 302) or multiple time points (N = 229) 3-12 months after COVID-19 symptom onset or SARS-CoV-2 detection in respiratory specimens was measured by semiquantitative chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The 531 patients (966 specimens) were classified according to the presence or absence of pneumonia symptoms. Anti N IgG was detected in 87.5% of patients (328/375) at 3 months, 38.6% (93/241) at 6 months, 23.7% (49/207) at 9 months, and 26.6% (38/143) at 12 months. The anti-N IgG seropositivity rate was significantly lower at 6, 9, and 12 months than at 3 months (P < 0.01) and was higher in the pneumonia group than in the non-pneumonia/asymptomatic group at 6 months (P < 0.01), 9 months (P = 0.04), and 12 months (P = 0.04). The rate started to decline 6-12 months after symptom onset. Anti-N IgG sample/cutoff index was positively correlated with age (r = 0.192, P < 0.01) but negatively correlated with interval between symptom onset and blood sampling (r = - 0.567, P < 0.01). These findings can guide vaccine strategies in recovered COVID-19 patients.

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Topics: Blood sampling (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41392-021-00759-1
Yuanling Yu, Meiyu Wang1, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Shufen Li2  +22 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.

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26 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2008-3
Fan Wu1, Su Zhao2, Bin Yu3, Yan-Mei Chen1  +17 moreInstitutions (4)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1–3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of the complete viral genome of a new coronavirus from the family Coronaviridae reveal that the virus is closely related to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses found in bats in China.

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Topics: Coronavirus (62%), Betacoronavirus (59%), Zika virus disease (54%) ... read more

6,266 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CID/CIAA248
Chuan Qin1, Luoqi Zhou1, Ziwei Hu1, Shuo-Qi Zhang1  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of all confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at Tongji Hospital from 10 January to 12 February 2020 were collected and analyzed. The data on laboratory examinations, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets, were analyzed and compared between patients with severe and nonsevere infection. RESULTS: Of the 452 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 286 were diagnosed as having severe infection. The median age was 58 years and 235 were male. The most common symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, expectoration, fatigue, dry cough, and myalgia. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocyte counts, higher leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Most severe cases demonstrated elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. The number of T cells significantly decreased, and were more impaired in severe cases. Both helper T (Th) cells and suppressor T cells in patients with COVID-19 were below normal levels, with lower levels of Th cells in the severe group. The percentage of naive Th cells increased and memory Th cells decreased in severe cases. Patients with COVID-19 also have lower levels of regulatory T cells, which are more obviously decreased in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: The novel coronavirus might mainly act on lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes. Surveillance of NLR and lymphocyte subsets is helpful in the early screening of critical illness, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.

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Topics: Lymphocyte (53%), Immune system (51%), T lymphocyte (50%)

2,605 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2179-Y
Jian Shang1, Gang Ye1, Ke Shi1, Yushun Wan1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
30 Mar 2020-Nature
Abstract: A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged and is rapidly spreading in humans, causing COVID-191,2. A key to tackling this pandemic is to understand the receptor recognition mechanism of the virus, which regulates its infectivity, pathogenesis and host range. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—in humans3,4. Here we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (engineered to facilitate crystallization) in complex with ACE2. In comparison with the SARS-CoV RBD, an ACE2-binding ridge in SARS-CoV-2 RBD has a more compact conformation; moreover, several residue changes in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD stabilize two virus-binding hotspots at the RBD–ACE2 interface. These structural features of SARS-CoV-2 RBD increase its ACE2-binding affinity. Additionally, we show that RaTG13, a bat coronavirus that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2, also uses human ACE2 as its receptor. The differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and RaTG13 in ACE2 recognition shed light on the potential animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides guidance for intervention strategies that target receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with human ACE2, compared with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV, sheds light on the structural features that increase its binding affinity to ACE2.

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Topics: Coronavirus (52%)

2,028 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1067081
Carlos Lois1, Elizabeth J. Hong1, Shirley Pease1, Eric J. Brown1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Feb 2002-Science
Abstract: Single-cell mouse embryos were infected in vitro with recombinant lentiviral vectors to generate transgenic mice carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene driven by a ubiquitously expressing promoter. Eighty percent of founder mice carried at least one copy of the transgene, and 90% of these expressed GFP at high levels. Progeny inherited the transgene(s) and displayed green fluorescence. Mice generated using lentiviral vectors with muscle-specific and T lymphocyte–specific promoters expressed high levels of GFP only in the appropriate cell types. We have also generated transgenic rats that express GFP at high levels, suggesting that this technique can be used to produce other transgenic animal species.

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Topics: Green fluorescent protein (55%), Transgene (54%)

1,968 Citations