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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/EPI.16850

Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies

02 Mar 2021-Epilepsia (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 62, Iss: 4, pp 984-996
Abstract: Objective This study was undertaken to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), describing trends over time, and exploring potential clinical and epidemiological factors explaining the heterogeneity in the region. Methods Observational studies assessing the incidence or prevalence of epilepsy in LAC countries up to March 2020 were systematically reviewed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Meta-analyses and cumulative analyses were performed using random-effects models. We assessed between-study heterogeneity with sensitivity, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. Moreover, the quality of the included studies and the certainty of evidence were evaluated using the GRADE (grading of recommendation, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Results Overall, 40 studies (from 42 records) were included, 37 for prevalence analyses and six for incidence (312 387 inhabitants; 410 178 person-years). The lifetime prevalence was 14.09 per 1000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.72-16.67), for active epilepsy prevalence was 9.06 per 1000 individuals (95% CI = 6.94-11.44), and the incidence rate was 1.11 per 1000 person-years (95% CI = .65-1.70). These high estimates have been constant in the region since 1990. However, substantial statistical heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were found. The overall certainty of evidence was low. Methodological aspects (sample size) and countries' epidemiological characteristics such as access to sanitation services and child and adult mortality rates explained the high heterogeneity. Finally, the prevalence of epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the general population was high, and the proportion of NCC diagnosis among people living with epilepsy was 17.37%. Significance The epilepsy prevalence and incidence in LAC are higher than worldwide estimates, being constant since 1990 and strongly influenced by NCC. We identified high between-study heterogeneity and significant methodological limitations (e.g., heterogeneous definitions, lack of longitudinal studies). The region needs upgraded research using standardized definitions and diagnostic methods, and urgent action against preventable causes.

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Topics: Study heterogeneity (56%), Mortality rate (54%), Incidence (epidemiology) (53%) ... show more

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLIM.2021.108786
Abstract: mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are remarkably effective. Limited information exists about the incidence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with their use. We conducted a prospective observational study including data from 704,003 first-doses recipients; 6536 AEFI were reported, of whom 65.1% had at least one neurologic AEFI (non-serious 99.6%). Thirty-three serious events were reported; 17 (51.5%) were neurologic (observed frequency, 2.4/100,000 doses). At the time of writing this report, 16/17 cases had been discharged without deaths. Our data suggest that the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is safe; its individual and societal benefits outweigh the low percentage of serious neurologic AEFI. This information should help to dissipate hesitancy towards this new vaccine platform.

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9 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12909-021-03001-2
Ramzi Shawahna1Institutions (1)
Abstract: BACKGROUND Knowledge deficits with regard to epilepsy have been reported among healthcare professionals. This study was conducted to develop consensus-based aims, contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods for a course on epilepsy for postgraduate or continuing education in community health nursing programs. METHODS A mixed method which combined a thorough search of literature, the nominal group technique, the Delphi technique, and survey of students' agreement was used. The databases MEDLINE/PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CInAHL/EBESCO, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Google Books, and Amazon were searched to identify potential aims, topics/contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods. Discussions and deliberations in serial meetings based on the nominal group technique were attended by educators/academicians (n = 12), neurologists (n = 2), practicing nurses (n = 5), pharmacists (n = 2), patients with epilepsy (n = 2), and students in postgraduate and continuing education programs (n = 7) to supplement and refine the data collected from the literature. The qualitative data were analyzed using RQDA tool for R. The Delphi technique was used among educators/academicians (n = 15), neurologists (n = 2), practicing nurses (n = 5), pharmacists (n = 2), patients with epilepsy (n = 3), and students in postgraduate and continuing education programs (n = 8) to achieve formal consensus. RESULTS Consensus was achieved on 6 aims, 16 intended learning outcomes, and 27 topics in the course. Of the topics, 13 were relevant to nature of epilepsy and seizures, 2 were relevant to the impact of epilepsy and seizures on different life aspects of patients with epilepsy, 4 were relevant to advocating for the patients and supporting their choices, 5 were relevant to educating patients and their caregivers, and 3 were relevant to assessments and services. CONCLUSION Consensus-based aims, topics/contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods of a course on epilepsy for postgraduate or continuing education in community health nursing programs were developed. Consensus-based courses could bridge knowledge gaps and improve educating community health nursing programs on epilepsy. Further studies are needed to determine if such consensus-based courses could promote care of patients with epilepsy.

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Topics: CINAHL (52%), Nominal group technique (52%), Community health (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/15357597211014195
30 Apr 2021-Epilepsy Currents
Abstract: Incidence and Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19 in Patients With Active Epilepsy Cabezudo-Garcia P, Ciano-Petersen NL, Mena-Vazquez N, et al. Neurology. 2020;95(10):e1417-e1425. doi:10.1212/WNL.000000...

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Topics: Case fatality rate (65%), Mortality rate (58%), Incidence (epidemiology) (54%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13854046.2021.1923802
Abstract: Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity among people with epilepsy (PWE) and tends to be more prevalent among people of color (POC) and those with intractable seizures. However, the extent to which illness-related perceptions are associated with depressive symptom severity among POC with intractable seizures is unclear. Method: This cross-sectional study examined relationships among illness representations and self-rated depressive symptoms in 55 PWE (M Age = 41; 61.8% female) with intractable seizures (M seizures per month = 2) who identified as Black/African-American (52.7%), Black/Caribbean-American (27.3%), and/or Hispanic/Latino (21.8%). Epilepsy-related illness perceptions were assessed with the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised and depression was measured via the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E). Results: Nearly half of the sample (41.8%) scored above the NDDI-E depression cut-off. PWE endorsing more severe depressive symptoms indicated that their epilepsy had more negative consequences, was hard to comprehend, was insufficiently controlled by treatment, and had a negative emotional impact (p's ≤ 0.02). Controlling for sex, these four illness representations accounted for 48% of the variance in depression severity. Interestingly, participants with probable major depressive episodes were more likely to endorse several psychological causes of seizures compared to non-depressed PWE. Conclusions: Worse depression symptom severity was associated with negative illness perceptions and a tendency to attribute one's epilepsy to psychological causes. Future research is needed to understand how the relationship between negative illness perceptions and depression symptoms unfold over time and whether interventions aimed at modifying illness representations reduce psychological distress in diverse PWE.

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65 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2
Abstract: This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random effects approach to combining evidence from a series of experiments comparing two treatments. This approach incorporates the heterogeneity of effects in the analysis of the overall treatment efficacy. The model can be extended to include relevant covariates which would reduce the heterogeneity and allow for more specific therapeutic recommendations. We suggest a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.

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Topics: Study heterogeneity (56%), Meta-analysis (50%), Funnel plot (50%)

29,821 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1000100
18 Aug 2009-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site ( should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

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Topics: Systematic review (62%), Meta-analysis (51%)

22,678 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLINEPI.2010.07.015
Abstract: This article introduces the approach of GRADE to rating quality of evidence GRADE specifies four categories-high, moderate, low, and very low-that are applied to a body of evidence, not to individual studies In the context of a systematic review, quality reflects our confidence that the estimates of the effect are correct In the context of recommendations, quality reflects our confidence that the effect estimates are adequate to support a particular recommendation Randomized trials begin as high-quality evidence, observational studies as low quality "Quality" as used in GRADE means more than risk of bias and so may also be compromised by imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness of study results, and publication bias In addition, several factors can increase our confidence in an estimate of effect GRADE provides a systematic approach for considering and reporting each of these factors GRADE separates the process of assessing quality of evidence from the process of making recommendations Judgments about the strength of a recommendation depend on more than just the quality of evidence

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3,986 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1
Haidong Wang1, Mohsen Naghavi1, Christine Allen1, Ryan M Barber1  +841 moreInstitutions (293)
08 Oct 2016-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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Topics: Mortality rate (63%), Compensation law of mortality (61%), Years of potential life lost (61%) ... show more

3,795 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/EPI.12550
01 Apr 2014-Epilepsia
Abstract: Epilepsy was defined conceptually in 2005 as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. This definition is usually practically applied as having two unprovoked seizures >24 h apart. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) accepted recommendations of a task force altering the practical definition for special circumstances that do not meet the two unprovoked seizures criteria. The task force proposed that epilepsy be considered to be a disease of the brain defined by any of the following conditions: (1) At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring >24 h apart; (2) one unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years; (3) diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who either had an age-dependent epilepsy syndrome but are now past the applicable age or who have remained seizure-free for the last 10 years and off antiseizure medicines for at least the last 5 years. "Resolved" is not necessarily identical to the conventional view of "remission or "cure." Different practical definitions may be formed and used for various specific purposes. This revised definition of epilepsy brings the term in concordance with common use. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

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Topics: Epilepsy syndromes (69%), Epilepsy (65%), Symptomatic seizures (52%)

2,580 Citations