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Journal ArticleDOI

Prevención del cáncer colorrectal con dieta y actividad física: actualización reciente

01 Jan 2011-Nutricion Hospitalaria (Aula Medica Ediciones)-Vol. 26, Iss: 6, pp 1491-1491

AbstractEl World Cancer Research Fund acaba de publicar el resumen de la ultima actualizacion sobre las causas del cancer colorrectal. El documento, que es una revision minuciosa de meta-analisis indica que existe suficiente evidencia de que la actividad fisica, cualquiera que sea (transporte, diversion, trabajo, distraccion), contribuye a prevenir la ocurrencia del cancer colorrectal, mientras que la evidencia es probable para alimentos ricos en fibra dietetica, el ajo, la leche y el calcio. La evidencia es mas limitada para vegetales, frutas, alimentos que contengan folato o selenio, pescado o alimentos ricos en vitamina D. La evidencia es mucho mas limitada para otros componentes de la dieta como ser cereales, patatas, mariscos, grasas, etc. En el otro lado del espectro, lo que es importante de resaltar es la evidencia convincente sobre los factores que elevan el riesgo de la enfermedad. En terminos de productos alimenticios, son las carnes rojas y los embutidos carnicos los que aumentan considerablemente el riesgo de cancer colorrectal. En cuanto a bebidas, el consumo de alcohol entre varones se ha probado como causal de la enfermedad, mientras que su rol es probable en mujeres. Finalmente, el estado nutricional de la persona cuenta: la grasa corporal y sobre todo la grasa abdominal son factores causales de la ocurrencia de cancer colorrectal. Existe asimismo evidencia sugestiva de que el consumo de alimentos ricos en hierro, que contengan grasa animal, el queso, y los alimentos ricos en azucares pueden ser causales de la enfermedad. Los canceres de colon y de recto son el tercer tipo mas comun a nivel mundial, y representan el 10% de los casos de cancer segun el mencionado reporte. Este tipo de cancer esta asociado con niveles avanzados de la transicion nutricional y de desarrollo economico, permaneciendo raro en paises en desarrollo. Este tipo de cancer es mas frecuente en varones que en mujeres. La mortalidad ocurre en mas o menos la mitad de los casos En resumidas cuentas, el mensaje es claro: la mejor prevencion del cancer colorrectal es el ejercicio fisico combinado con una dieta rica en fibra dietetica. El mensaje asimismo confirma que la reduccion en el consumo de carnes rojas y la eliminacion de productos carnicos de la dieta y la reduccion de peso contribuiran a prevenir la ocurrencia de esta enfermedad en la poblacion. Esto permite identificar comportamientos (actividad fisica, dieta) que pueden ser modificados de forma preventiva, particularmente en pacientes que reunen mayores factores de riesgo como ser la obesidad y la grasa abdominal. Esta informacion resumida es importante para la practica cotidiana en hospitales, en la consulta medica y para la consejeria a cargo del dietista. Asimismo, es importante que el consumidor, sobre todo de carnes y sus subproductos, este al tanto de estas recomendaciones para efectuar sus elecciones alimenticias de forma congruente con la evidencia cientifica.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2014-Appetite
TL;DR: The participants' ability to accurately assess the serving size of vegetables and whole grains in a self-served meal did not correspond with the actual amount served, which may have implications for consumer interpretation of dietary recommendations used in nutrition interventions in Denmark.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-estimated vegetable and whole grain serving sizes in a self-served buffet meal. The study took place in a laboratory setting where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each food type that was self-served by each participant. The initial sample consisted of 58 participants recruited from Aalborg University in Copenhagen, of which 52 participants (59% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of whole grains and 49 participants (63% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of vegetable servings in their meal. The majority of the participants were students aged 20–29 years (85% for whole grain responses and 82% for vegetable responses). Significant differences between self-estimated and actual portion size estimates were observed for both vegetables and whole grains (P 0.05). In conclusion, the participants’ ability to accurately assess the serving size of vegetables and whole grains in a self-served meal did not correspond with the actual amount served. This may have implications for consumer interpretation of dietary recommendations used in nutrition interventions in Denmark.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2012-Appetite
TL;DR: It is suggested that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study evaluated the protective effect of metformin in a CRC model induced by 1,2‐dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Balb/c female mice, and revealed protective activity of MET, preventing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and restoring basal labeling of apoptosis.
Abstract: Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent type of cancer worldwide. In the past few years, studies have revealed a protective effect of metformin (MET-an anti-hyperglycemic drug, used to treat type 2 diabetes), against CRC. The protective effect of MET has been associated with AMPK activation (and mTOR inhibition), resulting in suppressed protein synthesis, and reduced cell proliferation in malignant transformed cells. To elucidate new mechanisms for the protective effect of metformin, we evaluated the oxidative stress and inflammatory process modulation, since these processes are strictly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study evaluated the protective effect of MET in a CRC model induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Balb/c female mice. The simultaneous/continuous treatment (administration of MET and DMH simultaneously), revealed protective activity of MET, preventing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in 71.4% at distal colon sections, and was able to restore basal labeling of apoptosis. Treatment with MET also reduced the inflammatory process induced by DMH, resulting in of the reduction of oxidative stress and nitric oxide related parameters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that nutritional coaching may be helpful in preventing certain cancers.
Abstract: There is extensive literature on recommendations for cancer prevention, but nonetheless, much of the population don’t carry it out. Moreover, the few investigations about this lack of adherence, has motivated the authors of this review to open a line of research focused on looking for tools that could foster the following of this recommendations. The main purpose of this project is to confirm the ability of nutritional coaching as a useful tool in the acquisition of preventive healthy habits and the modification of unhealthy habits that promote certain cancers. This review comprises current information about habits and foods which may increase or decrease the risk of different types of cancer, and simultaneously, addresses scientific evidences on the effectiveness of nutritional coaching to promote the responsibility of self care, improving nutritional status. Results show the effectiveness of coaching in modifying preventing and/or promoting factors of cancer. On this ground, it is concluded that nutritional coaching may be helpful in preventing certain cancers.

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide.

977 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.
Abstract: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

56 citations