scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Primary Care COPD Patients Compared with Large Pharmaceutically-Sponsored COPD Studies : An UNLOCK Validation Study

05 Mar 2014-PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science)-Vol. 9, Iss: 3

TL;DR: Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations, as hitherto unknown GOLD I exacerbation characteristics are revealed.

AbstractBackground: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS). There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD) on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. Methods: Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n = 3508) from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. Results: Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD)-2.4; p = 0.03), predominantly male (MD 12.4; p = 0.1) with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; p = 1 and >= 2 exacerbations, although results were not statistically significant. Our findings add to the literature, as we revealed hitherto unknown GOLD I exacerbation characteristics, showing 34% of mild patients had >= 1 exacerbations per year and 12% had >= 2 exacerbations per year. The proportion of primary care patients eligible for inclusion in LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN) to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT). Conclusion: Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care populations in their recommendations.

Topics: COPD (51%), Pulmonary function testing (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD.
Abstract: Introduction: Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of impr ...

70 citations


Cites methods from "Primary Care COPD Patients Compared..."

  • ...Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL....

    [...]

  • ...We conclude that the chronic bronchitis phenotype and musculoskeletal symptoms in COPD patients indicate a higher risk of low HRQL....

    [...]

  • ...The outcomes of CAT and SGRQ show a fairly good correlation in patients with COPD.7 Many COPD patients suffer from more than one condition,8 and comorbidities are known to influence mortality, morbidity, and hospitalizations as well as HRQL.9–11 The associations of cardiovascular disease, depression, and underweight with poor HRQL are well documented,12–15 although our understanding of these associations remains limited....

    [...]

  • ...Depression is common in COPD.8 The finding that depression influenced EQ-5D index in our study is consistent with and confirms previous studies, in which depression in COPD was associated with worse HRQL as assessed using EQ-5D,31 SGRQ,32 and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ).14 Heart disease influences HRQL when estimated by both the generic instrument SF-12 and the disease-specific instrument SGRQ in COPD.12,15 In our study, both generic and disease-specific HRQL instruments were used, but we were not able to identify an association of cardiovascular disease and lower HRQL. Underweight is associated with worse SGRQ score in COPD,13 but no associations with HRQL were found in the present study....

    [...]

  • ...It cannot be excluded that the use of a broad definition of cardiovascular disease may have masked an association between cardiovascular disease and HRQL....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2017-Chest
TL;DR: A multifaceted approach is required to address COPD in women, including greater awareness, minimization of risk, and further elucidation of the sex-specific factors that affect risk, disease progression, and treatment success.
Abstract: COPD is a highly debilitating disease that represents a substantial and growing health burden in women. There is increasing evidence for sex-related differences in COPD risk, progression, and outcomes. However, the disease receives scant attention as a women's health issue. Thus, a multifaceted approach is required to address COPD in women, including greater awareness, minimization of risk, and further elucidation of the sex-specific factors (biological and cultural) that affect risk, disease progression, and treatment success. This article reviews the current literature on the topic and provides suggestions for achieving better outcomes for the millions of women with COPD worldwide.

67 citations


Cites background from "Primary Care COPD Patients Compared..."

  • ...There is a need for future trials to include more female participants and to prespecify subanalyses on the basis of sex to study whether biological differences affect the way women respond to medications and therapeutic strategies.(82) In addition, studies should consider the use of sex as a variable in its own right....

    [...]

  • ...Analyses suggest that clinical trial populations differ from real-world patients, particularly in sex distribution.(82) There is a need for future trials to include more female participants and to prespecify subanalyses on the basis of sex to study whether biological differences affect the way women respond to medications and therapeutic strategies....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Commission summarises expert opinion from key stakeholders-patients, caregivers, and medical professionals, as well as representatives from health systems, insurance companies, and industry-to understand barriers to care delivery and propose potential solutions.
Abstract: Summary The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the USA continues to grow. Although progress has been made in the the development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and care guidelines, whether patients' quality of life is improved will ultimately depend on the actual implementation of care and an individual patient's access to that care. In this Commission, we summarise expert opinion from key stakeholders—patients, caregivers, and medical professionals, as well as representatives from health systems, insurance companies, and industry—to understand barriers to care delivery and propose potential solutions. Health care in the USA is delivered through a patchwork of provider networks, with a wide variation in access to care depending on a patient's insurance, geographical location, and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, Medicare's complicated coverage and reimbursement structure pose unique challenges for patients with chronic respiratory disease who might need access to several types of services. Throughout this Commission, recurring themes include poor guideline implementation among health-care providers and poor patient access to key treatments such as affordable maintenance drugs and pulmonary rehabilitation. Although much attention has recently been focused on the reduction of hospital readmissions for COPD exacerbations, health systems in the USA struggle to meet these goals, and methods to reduce readmissions have not been proven. There are no easy solutions, but engaging patients and innovative thinkers in the development of solutions is crucial. Financial incentives might be important in raising engagement of providers and health systems. Lowering co-pays for maintenance drugs could result in improved adherence and, ultimately, decreased overall health-care spending. Given the substantial geographical diversity, health systems will need to find their own solutions to improve care coordination and integration, until better data for interventions that are universally effective become available.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients at risk of exacerbation can be identified from routinely available, computerized primary care data and a robust, clinically based model to predict frequent exacerbation risk was developed.
Abstract: This study was funded by an unrestricted grant from the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG; www.effectivenessevaluation.org). Access to data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database was co-funded by Research in Real-Life Ltd (RiRL, Cambridge, UK). The authors would like to thank Dr John Bukowski of WordsWorld Consulting for editorial assistance drafting this manuscript. Additional editorial support was provided by Elizabeth V Hillyer, DVM, funded by RiRL.

58 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Having another chronic respiratory disease beside COPD showed the highest risk for developing a new exacerbation and several chronic comorbidities were associated with having frequent exacerbations and increased exacerbation risk.
Abstract: COPD often coexists with chronic conditions that may influence disease prognosis. We investigated associations between chronic (co)morbidities and exacerbations in primary care COPD patients. Retrospective cohort study based on 2012–2013 electronic health records from 179 Dutch general practices. Comorbidities from patients with physician-diagnosed COPD were categorized according to International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes. Chi-squared tests, uni- and multivariable logistic, and Cox regression analyses were used to study associations with exacerbations, defined as oral corticosteroid prescriptions. Fourteen thousand six hundred three patients with COPD could be studied (mean age 67 (SD 12) years, 53% male) for two years. At baseline 12,826 (88%) suffered from ≥1 comorbidities, 3263 (22%) from ≥5. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (35%), coronary heart disease (19%), and osteoarthritis (18%). Several comorbidities showed statistically significant associations with frequent (i.e., ≥2/year) exacerbations: heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval: 1.72; 1.38–2.14), blindness & low vision (OR 1.46; 1.21–1.75), pulmonary cancer (OR 1.85; 1.28–2.67), depression 1.48; 1.14–1.91), prostate disorders (OR 1.50; 1.13–1.98), asthma (OR 1.36; 1.11–1.70), osteoporosis (OR 1.41; 1.11–1.80), diabetes (OR 0.80; 0.66–0.97), dyspepsia (OR 1.25; 1.03–1.50), and peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.20; 1.00–1.45). From all comorbidity categories, having another chronic respiratory disease beside COPD showed the highest risk for developing a new exacerbation (Cox hazard ratio 1.26; 1.17–1.36). Chronic comorbidities are highly prevalent in primary care COPD patients. Several chronic comorbidities were associated with having frequent exacerbations and increased exacerbation risk.

53 citations


Cites background from "Primary Care COPD Patients Compared..."

  • ..., the COPD population without selection of any kind, which is unprecedented and impossible to derive from clinical trial populations [21]....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is recommended that spirometry is required for the clinical diagnosis of COPD to avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflow limitation.
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its management, and its prevention, a committed group of scientists encouraged the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization to form the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increase awareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely of it or its complications. The first step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, published in 2001. The present, newly revised document follows the same format as the original consensus report, but has been updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that have appeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of international experts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalence of COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approaches for the dissemination and implementation of COPD management guidelines. We appreciate the enormous amount of work the GOLD national leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD. Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report was originally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of governments, public health officials, health care workers, and the general public, but a concerted effort by all involved in health care will be necessary.

16,210 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Representatives from many countries serve as a network for the dissemination and implementation of programs for diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD.
Abstract: Representatives from many countries serve as a network for the dissemination and implementation of programs for diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD. The GOLD Board of Directors is grateful to the many GOLD National Leaders who participated in discussions of concepts that appear in GOLD reports.

2,942 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reduction in death from all causes among patients with COPD in the combination-therapy group did not reach the predetermined level of statistical significance, and there were significant benefits in all other outcomes among these patients.
Abstract: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 μg plus fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500 μg twice daily (combination regimen), administered with a single inhaler, with placebo, salmeterol alone, or fluticasone propionate alone for a period of 3 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause for the comparison between the combination regimen and placebo; the frequency of exacerbations, health status, and spirometric values were also assessed. Results Of 6112 patients in the efficacy population, 875 died within 3 years after the start of the study treatment. All-cause mortality rates were 12.6% in the combinationtherapy group, 15.2% in the placebo group, 13.5% in the salmeterol group, and 16.0% in the fluticasone group. The hazard ratio for death in the combination-therapy group, as compared with the placebo group, was 0.825 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.681 to 1.002; P = 0.052, adjusted for the interim analyses), corresponding to a difference of 2.6 percentage points or a reduction in the risk of death of 17.5%. The mortality rate for salmeterol alone or fluticasone propionate alone did not differ significantly from that for placebo. As compared with placebo, the combination regimen reduced the annual rate of exacerbations from 1.13 to 0.85 and improved health status and spirometric values (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). There was no difference in the incidence of ocular or bone side effects. The probability of having pneumonia reported as an adverse event was higher among patients receiving medications containing fluticasone propionate (19.6% in the combination-therapy group and 18.3% in the fluticasone group) than in the placebo group (12.3%, P<0.001 for comparisons between these treatments and placebo). Conclusions The reduction in death from all causes among patients with COPD in the combinationtherapy group did not reach the predetermined level of statistical significance. There were significant benefits in all other outcomes among these patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00268216.)

2,914 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire is a standardized self-completed questionnaire for measuring impaired health and perceived well-being in airways disease and the background and rationale for its development are discussed together with an analysis of its performance.
Abstract: The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire is a standardized self-completed questionnaire for measuring impaired health and perceived well-being ('quality of life') in airways disease. It has been designed to allow comparative measurements of health between patient populations and quantify changes in health following therapy. The background and rationale for its development are discussed together with an analysis of its performance.

2,449 citations


"Primary Care COPD Patients Compared..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We used the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) which is designed to measure health- related quality of life in patients with asthma and COPD [34]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although exacerbations become more frequent and more severe as COPD progresses, the rate at which they occur appears to reflect an independent susceptibility phenotype, which has implications for the targeting of exacerbation-prevention strategies across the spectrum of disease severity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype of COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider to prescribe antibiotics or corticosteroids (or both) or that led to hospitalization (severe exacerbations). Exacerbation frequency was observed over a period of 3 years. RESULTS: Exacerbations became more frequent (and more severe) as the severity of COPD increased; exacerbation rates in the first year of follow-up were 0.85 per person for patients with stage 2 COPD (with stage defined in accordance with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages), 1.34 for patients with stage 3, and 2.00 for patients with stage 4. Overall, 22% of patients with stage 2 disease, 33% with stage 3, and 47% with stage 4 had frequent exacerbations (two or more in the first year of follow-up). The single best predictor of exacerbations, across all GOLD stages, was a history of exacerbations. The frequent-exacerbation phenotype appeared to be relatively stable over a period of 3 years and could be predicted on the basis of the patient's recall of previous treated events. In addition to its association with more severe disease and prior exacerbations, the phenotype was independently associated with a history of gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn, poorer quality of life, and elevated white-cell count. CONCLUSIONS: Although exacerbations become more frequent and more severe as COPD progresses, the rate at which they occur appears to reflect an independent susceptibility phenotype. This has implications for the targeting of exacerbation-prevention strategies across the spectrum of disease severity. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00292552.)

2,187 citations


"Primary Care COPD Patients Compared..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Selection for large COPD studies The proportion of patients from primary care that would be eligible to be included in the LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN trial) to 42% (ECLIPSE and UPLIFT study) (Table 7)....

    [...]

  • ...In addition to five large trials, we decided to include the ECLIPSE cohort study as well, because this is an important observational study often cited in guidelines, especially with regard to exacerbation frequency patterns....

    [...]

  • ...Exacerbation data Individual datasets: UNLOCK studies reporting exacerbation data were compared with baseline data of the ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT and ECLIPSE studies (Table 3)....

    [...]

  • ...The proportion of primary care patients eligible for inclusion in LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN) to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT)....

    [...]

  • ...Overall mean MRC scores were similar in the UNLOCK studies compared to ECLIPSE: 2.1 (0.8) and 2.7 (1.1), respectively....

    [...]


Related Papers (5)