Principles of Optics
01 Jan 1959-
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals, including interference, interferometers, and diffraction.
Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.
TL;DR: This work shows how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and proposes a design strategy that has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.
Abstract: Using the freedom of design that metamaterials provide, we show how electromagnetic fields can be redirected at will and propose a design strategy. The conserved fields-electric displacement field D, magnetic induction field B, and Poynting vector B-are all displaced in a consistent manner. A simple illustration is given of the cloaking of a proscribed volume of space to exclude completely all electromagnetic fields. Our work has relevance to exotic lens design and to the cloaking of objects from electromagnetic fields.
TL;DR: In this article, the optical properties of submicrometre cylindrical cavities in metallic films were explored and it was shown that arrays of such holes display highly unusual zero-order transmission spectra at wavelengths larger than the array period, beyond which no diffraction occurs.
Abstract: The desire to use and control photons in a manner analogous to the control of electrons in solids has inspired great interest in such topics as the localization of light, microcavity quantum electrodynamics and near-field optics1,2,3,4,5,6. A fundamental constraint in manipulating light is the extremely low transmittivity of apertures smaller than the wavelength of the incident photon. While exploring the optical properties of submicrometre cylindrical cavities in metallic films, we have found that arrays of such holes display highly unusual zero-order transmission spectra (where the incident and detected light are collinear) at wavelengths larger than the array period, beyond which no diffraction occurs. In particular, sharp peaks in transmission are observed at wavelengths as large as ten times the diameter of the cylinders. At these maxima the transmission efficiency can exceed unity (when normalized to the area of the holes), which is orders of magnitude greater than predicted by standard aperture theory. Our experiments provide evidence that these unusual optical properties are due to the coupling of light with plasmons — electronic excitations — on the surface of the periodically patterned metal film. Measurements of transmission as a function of the incident light angle result in a photonic band diagram. These findings may find application in novel photonic devices.
TL;DR: In this article, an experimental technique using powders is described which permits the rapid classification of materials according to the magnitude of nonlinear optical coefficients relative to a crystalline quartz standard and the existence or absence of phase matching direction(s) for second-harmonic generation.
Abstract: An experimental technique using powders is described which permits the rapid classification of materials according to(a) magnitude of nonlinear optical coefficients relative to a crystalline quartz standard and(b) existence or absence of phase matching direction(s) for second‐harmonic generation.Results are presented for a large number of inorganic and organic substances including single‐crystal data on phase‐matched second‐harmonic generation in HIO3, KNbO3, PbTiO3, LiClO4·3H2O, and CO(NH2)2. Iodic acid (HIO3) has a nonlinear coefficient d14∼1.5×d31 LiNbO3. Since it is readily grown from water solution and does not exhibit optical damage effects, this material should be useful for nonlinear device applications.
TL;DR: In this article, the linearity of quantum mechanics has been shown to prevent the replication of a photon of definite polarization in the presence of an excited atom, and the authors show that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.
Abstract: If a photon of definite polarization encounters an excited atom, there is typically some nonvanishing probability that the atom will emit a second photon by stimulated emission. Such a photon is guaranteed to have the same polarization as the original photon. But is it possible by this or any other process to amplify a quantum state, that is, to produce several copies of a quantum system (the polarized photon in the present case) each having the same state as the original? If it were, the amplifying process could be used to ascertain the exact state of a quantum system: in the case of a photon, one could determine its polarization by first producing a beam of identically polarized copies and then measuring the Stokes parameters1. We show here that the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids such replication and that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.
TL;DR: The current status and future prospects of plAsmonics in various applications including plasmonic chips, light generation, and nanolithography are reviewed.
Abstract: Electronic circuits provide us with the ability to control the transport and storage of electrons. However, the performance of electronic circuits is now becoming rather limited when digital information needs to be sent from one point to another. Photonics offers an effective solution to this problem by implementing optical communication systems based on optical fibers and photonic circuits. Unfortunately, the micrometer-scale bulky components of photonics have limited the integration of these components into electronic chips, which are now measured in nanometers. Surface plasmon-based circuits, which merge electronics and photonics at the nanoscale, may offer a solution to this size-compatibility problem. Here we review the current status and future prospects of plasmonics in various applications including plasmonic chips, light generation, and nanolithography.