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Journal ArticleDOI

Principles Underlying the Use of Multiple Informants' Reports

28 Mar 2013-Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (Annual Reviews)-Vol. 9, Iss: 1, pp 123-149

TL;DR: In this review, the authors advance a framework (Operations Triad Model) outlining general principles for using and interpreting informants' reports and provide supportive evidence for this framework and discuss its implications for hypothesis testing, study design, and quantitative review.

AbstractResearchers use multiple informants' reports to assess and examine behavior. However, informants' reports commonly disagree. Informants' reports often disagree in their perceived levels of a behavior (“low” versus “elevated” mood), and examining multiple reports in a single study often results in inconsistent findings. Although researchers often espouse taking a multi-informant assessment approach, they frequently address informant discrepancies using techniques that treat discrepancies as measurement error. Yet, recent work indicates that researchers in a variety of fields often may be unable to justify treating informant discrepancies as measurement error. In this review, the authors advance a framework (Operations Triad Model) outlining general principles for using and interpreting informants' reports. Using the framework, researchers can test whether or not they can extract meaningful information about behavior from discrepancies among multiple informants' reports. The authors provide supportive evide...

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An examines methodologies suited to identify such symptom networks and discusses network analysis techniques that may be used to extract clinically and scientifically useful information from such networks (e.g., which symptom is most central in a person's network).
Abstract: In network approaches to psychopathology, disorders result from the causal interplay between symptoms (e.g., worry → insomnia → fatigue), possibly involving feedback loops (e.g., a person may engage in substance abuse to forget the problems that arose due to substance abuse). The present review examines methodologies suited to identify such symptom networks and discusses network analysis techniques that may be used to extract clinically and scientifically useful information from such networks (e.g., which symptom is most central in a person's network). The authors also show how network analysis techniques may be used to construct simulation models that mimic symptom dynamics. Network approaches naturally explain the limited success of traditional research strategies, which are typically based on the idea that symptoms are manifestations of some common underlying factor, while offering promising methodological alternatives. In addition, these techniques may offer possibilities to guide and evaluate therape...

1,316 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Child and adolescent patients may display mental health concerns within some contexts and not others (e.g., home vs. school). Thus, understanding the specific contexts in which patients display concerns may assist mental health professionals in tailoring treatments to patients' needs. Consequently, clinical assessments often include reports from multiple informants who vary in the contexts in which they observe patients' behavior (e.g., patients, parents, teachers). Previous meta-analyses indicate that informants' reports correlate at low-to-moderate magnitudes. However, is it valid to interpret low correspondence among reports as indicating that patients display concerns in some contexts and not others? We meta-analyzed 341 studies published between 1989 and 2014 that reported cross-informant correspondence estimates, and observed low-to-moderate correspondence (mean internalizing: r = .25; mean externalizing: r = .30; mean overall: r = .28). Informant pair, mental health domain, and measurement method moderated magnitudes of correspondence. These robust findings have informed the development of concepts for interpreting multi-informant assessments, allowing researchers to draw specific predictions about the incremental and construct validity of these assessments. In turn, we critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment. In so doing, we identify crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provide recommendations for "best practices" in using and interpreting multi-informant assessments in clinical work and research. This article has important implications for developing personalized approaches to clinical assessment, with the goal of informing techniques for tailoring treatments to target the specific contexts where patients display concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

639 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: This article critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment, and identified crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provided recommendations for "best practices" in using and interpreting multi-Informant assessments in clinical work and research.
Abstract: Child and adolescent patients may display mental health concerns within some contexts and not others (e.g., home vs. school). Thus, understanding the specific contexts in which patients display concerns may assist mental health professionals in tailoring treatments to patients’ needs. Consequently, clinical assessments often include reports from multiple informants who vary in the contexts in which they observe patients’ behavior (e.g., patients, parents, teachers). Previous meta-analyses indicate that informants’ reports correlate at low-to-moderate magnitudes. However, is it valid to interpret low correspondence among reports as indicating that patients display concerns in some contexts and not others? We meta-analyzed 341 studies published between 1989 and 2014 that reported cross-informant correspondence estimates, and observed low-to-moderate correspondence (mean internalizing: r = .25; mean externalizing: r = .30; mean overall: r = .28). Informant pair, mental health domain, and measurement method moderated magnitudes of correspondence. These robust findings have informed the development of concepts for interpreting multi-informant assessments, allowing researchers to draw specific predictions about the incremental and construct validity of these assessments. In turn, we critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment. In so doing, we identify crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provide recommendations for “best practices” in using and interpreting multi-informant assessments in clinical work and research. This article has important implications for developing personalized approaches to clinical assessment, with the goal of informing techniques for tailoring treatments to target the specific contexts where patients display concerns.

607 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current state of the literature regarding psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia is reviewed within the frameworks of the recovery model of mental health and the expanded stress-vulnerability model.
Abstract: The current state of the literature regarding psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia is reviewed within the frameworks of the recovery model of mental health and the expanded stress-vulnerability model. Interventions targeting specific domains of functioning, age groups, stages of illness, and human service system gaps are classified as evidence-based practices or promising practices according to the extent to which their efficacy is currently supported by meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence-based practices include assertive community treatment (ACT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for psychosis, cognitive remediation, family psychoeducation, illness self-management training, social skills training, and supported employment. Promising practices include cognitive adaptive therapy, CBT for posttraumatic stress disorder, first-episode psychosis intervention, healthy lifestyle interventions, integrated treatment for co-occurring disorders, interventions targeting older individuals, peer support services, physical disease management, prodromal stage intervention, social cognition training, supported education, and supported housing. Implications and future directions are discussed.

265 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The interpersonal characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of depression in the context of the relevant theories that address the role of interpersonal processes in the onset, maintenance, and chronicity of depression are summarized.
Abstract: Humans have an intrinsic need for social connection; thus, it is crucial to understand depression in an interpersonal context. Interpersonal theories of depression posit that depressed individuals tend to interact with others in a way that elicits rejection, which increases their risk for future depression. In this review, we summarize the interpersonal characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of depression in the context of the relevant theories that address the role of interpersonal processes in the onset, maintenance, and chronicity of depression. Topics reviewed include social skills, behavioral features, communication behaviors, interpersonal feedback seeking, and interpersonal styles as they relate to depression. Treatment implications are discussed in light of the current research on interpersonal processes in depression, and the following future directions are discussed: developing integrative models of depression, improving measurement of interpersonal constructs, examining the association between interpersonal processes in depression and suicide, and tailoring interventions to target interpersonal processes in depression.

228 citations


References
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Reference EntryDOI
11 Jun 2013

113,026 citations


Book
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: In this Section: 1. Multivariate Statistics: Why? and 2. A Guide to Statistical Techniques: Using the Book Research Questions and Associated Techniques.
Abstract: In this Section: 1. Brief Table of Contents 2. Full Table of Contents 1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 A Guide to Statistical Techniques: Using the Book Chapter 3 Review of Univariate and Bivariate Statistics Chapter 4 Cleaning Up Your Act: Screening Data Prior to Analysis Chapter 5 Multiple Regression Chapter 6 Analysis of Covariance Chapter 7 Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance Chapter 8 Profile Analysis: The Multivariate Approach to Repeated Measures Chapter 9 Discriminant Analysis Chapter 10 Logistic Regression Chapter 11 Survival/Failure Analysis Chapter 12 Canonical Correlation Chapter 13 Principal Components and Factor Analysis Chapter 14 Structural Equation Modeling Chapter 15 Multilevel Linear Modeling Chapter 16 Multiway Frequency Analysis 2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction Multivariate Statistics: Why? Some Useful Definitions Linear Combinations of Variables Number and Nature of Variables to Include Statistical Power Data Appropriate for Multivariate Statistics Organization of the Book Chapter 2: A Guide to Statistical Techniques: Using the Book Research Questions and Associated Techniques Some Further Comparisons A Decision Tree Technique Chapters Preliminary Check of the Data Chapter 3: Review of Univariate and Bivariate Statistics Hypothesis Testing Analysis of Variance Parameter Estimation Effect Size Bivariate Statistics: Correlation and Regression. Chi-Square Analysis Chapter 4: Cleaning Up Your Act: Screening Data Prior to Analysis Important Issues in Data Screening Complete Examples of Data Screening Chapter 5: Multiple Regression General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Regression Analyses Fundamental Equations for Multiple Regression Major Types of Multiple Regression Some Important Issues. Complete Examples of Regression Analysis Comparison of Programs Chapter 6: Analysis of Covariance General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Analysis of Covariance Fundamental Equations for Analysis of Covariance Some Important Issues Complete Example of Analysis of Covariance Comparison of Programs Chapter 7: Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance Fundamental Equations for Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance Some Important Issues Complete Examples of Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance Comparison of Programs Chapter 8: Profile Analysis: The Multivariate Approach to Repeated Measures General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Profile Analysis Fundamental Equations for Profile Analysis Some Important Issues Complete Examples of Profile Analysis Comparison of Programs Chapter 9: Discriminant Analysis General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Discriminant Analysis Fundamental Equations for Discriminant Analysis Types of Discriminant Analysis Some Important Issues Comparison of Programs Chapter 10: Logistic Regression General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Logistic Regression Analysis Fundamental Equations for Logistic Regression Types of Logistic Regression Some Important Issues Complete Examples of Logistic Regression Comparison of Programs Chapter 11: Survival/Failure Analysis General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Survival Analysis Fundamental Equations for Survival Analysis Types of Survival Analysis Some Important Issues Complete Example of Survival Analysis Comparison of Programs Chapter 12: Canonical Correlation General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations Fundamental Equations for Canonical Correlation Some Important Issues Complete Example of Canonical Correlation Comparison of Programs Chapter 13: Principal Components and Factor Analysis General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations Fundamental Equations for Factor Analysis Major Types of Factor Analysis Some Important Issues Complete Example of FA Comparison of Programs Chapter 14: Structural Equation Modeling General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Structural Equation Modeling Fundamental Equations for Structural Equations Modeling Some Important Issues Complete Examples of Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. Comparison of Programs Chapter 15: Multilevel Linear Modeling General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Multilevel Linear Modeling Fundamental Equations Types of MLM Some Important Issues Complete Example of MLM Comparison of Programs Chapter 16: Multiway Frequency Analysis General Purpose and Description Kinds of Research Questions Limitations to Multiway Frequency Analysis Fundamental Equations for Multiway Frequency Analysis Some Important Issues Complete Example of Multiway Frequency Analysis Comparison of Programs

53,012 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This transmutability of the validation matrix argues for the comparisons within the heteromethod block as the most generally relevant validation data, and illustrates the potential interchangeability of trait and method components.
Abstract: Content Memory (Learning Ability) As Comprehension 82 Vocabulary Cs .30 ( ) .23 .31 ( ) .31 .31 .35 ( ) .29 .48 .35 .38 ( ) .30 .40 .47 .58 .48 ( ) As judged against these latter values, comprehension (.48) and vocabulary (.47), but not memory (.31), show some specific validity. This transmutability of the validation matrix argues for the comparisons within the heteromethod block as the most generally relevant validation data, and illustrates the potential interchangeability of trait and method components. Some of the correlations in Chi's (1937) prodigious study of halo effect in ratings are appropriate to a multitrait-multimethod matrix in which each rater might be regarded as representing a different method. While the published report does not make these available in detail because it employs averaged values, it is apparent from a comparison of his Tables IV and VIII that the ratings generally failed to meet the requirement that ratings of the same trait by different raters should correlate higher than ratings of different traits by the same rater. Validity is shown to the extent that of the correlations in the heteromethod block, those in the validity diagonal are higher than the average heteromethod-heterotrait values. A conspicuously unsuccessful multitrait-multimethod matrix is provided by Campbell (1953, 1956) for rating of the leadership behavior of officers by themselves and by their subordinates. Only one of 11 variables (Recognition Behavior) met the requirement of providing a validity diagonal value higher than any of the heterotrait-heteromethod values, that validity being .29. For none of the variables were the validities higher than heterotrait-monomethod values. A study of attitudes toward authority and nonauthority figures by Burwen and Campbell (1957) contains a complex multitrait-multimethod matrix, one symmetrical excerpt from which is shown in Table 6. Method variance was strong for most of the procedures in this study. Where validity was found, it was primarily at the level of validity diagonal values higher than heterotrait-heteromethod values. As illustrated in Table 6, attitude toward father showed this kind of validity, as did attitude toward peers to a lesser degree. Attitude toward boss showed no validity. There was no evidence of a generalized attitude toward authority which would include father and boss, although such values as the VALIDATION BY THE MULTITRAIT-MULTIMETHOD MATRIX

14,992 citations


Book
B. F. Skinner1
01 Jan 1953
Abstract: The psychology classic-a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled-from one of the most influential behaviorists of the twentieth century and the author of Walden Two. "This is an important book, exceptionally well written, and logically consistent with the basic premise of the unitary nature of science. Many students of society and culture would take violent issue with most of the things that Skinner has to say, but even those who disagree most will find this a stimulating book." -Samuel M. Strong, The American Journal of Sociology "This is a remarkable book-remarkable in that it presents a strong, consistent, and all but exhaustive case for a natural science of human behavior...It ought to be...valuable for those whose preferences lie with, as well as those whose preferences stand against, a behavioristic approach to human activity." -Harry Prosch, Ethics

8,299 citations


"Principles Underlying the Use of Mu..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…which a patient lives may vary as a function of the contingencies (e.g., corporal punishment and praise) that reinforce expressions of her behavior (e.g., Skinner 1953), and as mentioned previously, multiple informants may vary in where they observe a patient’s behavior (e.g., De Los Reyes 2011)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Etude de la coherence entre differentes sources (269 echantillons utilisees dans 119 etudes) concernant les evaluations des problemes affectifs et comportementaux d'enfants et d'adolescents âges de 1 1/2 a 19 ans.
Abstract: Etude de la coherence entre differentes sources (269 echantillons utilisees dans 119 etudes) concernant les evaluations des problemes affectifs et comportementaux d'enfants et d'adolescents âges de 1 1/2 a 19 ans

5,061 citations


"Principles Underlying the Use of Mu..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Third, as mentioned previously, low multi-informant correspondence is the norm rather than the exception in assessments of child, adolescent, and adult psychopathology (Achenbach et al. 1987, 2005)....

    [...]

  • ...Along these lines, perhaps the investigative team would draw from theory suggesting that parents and teachers provide discrepant reports because they observe children in different contexts or settings (parents at home versus teachers at school; Achenbach et al. 1987, Kraemer et al. 2003)....

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  • ...Achenbach et al. (1987) lucidly reflected this interpretation, in a meta-analysis of correspondence between informants’ reports of child mental health that was published nearly a century after Edgeworth’s (1888) article....

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  • ...However, although multiple informants’ reports typically correspond no higher than low-to-moderate in magnitude (e.g., r’s ranging from 0.20 to 0.40; see Achenbach et al. 1987, 2005), they nonetheless often correspond with each other at statistically significant magnitudes....

    [...]

  • ...(e.g., Achenbach et al. 1987, 2005)....

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