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Journal ArticleDOI

Print media coverage of primary healthcare and related research evidence in South Africa

12 Nov 2015-Health Research Policy and Systems (BioMed Central)-Vol. 13, Iss: 1, pp 68-68
Topics: News media (63%), Health policy (58%), Health care (56%), Health services research (54%), Health administration (54%)

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Book
01 Jun 2009
Abstract: The United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II. After 1950, UNICEF turned to focus on general programs for the improvement of children's welfare worldwide, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts. The organization concentrates on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact on the lives of the most disadvantaged children in developing countries, such as the prevention and treatment of disease, child healthcare, malnutrition, illiteracy, and other welfare services.

1,059 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings suggest that narratives may have a positive influence when used as inspiration and empowerment tools to stimulate policy inquiries, as educational and awareness tools to initiate policy discussions and gain public support, and as advocacy and lobbying tools to formulate, adopt or implement policy.
Abstract: There is increased interest in using narratives or storytelling to influence health policies. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on the use of narratives to impact the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomised studies, non-randomised studies, process evaluation studies, economic studies, qualitative studies, stakeholder analyses, policy analyses, and case studies. The MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), WHO Global Health Library, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and Google Scholar databases were searched. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. We synthesised the findings narratively and presented the results stratified according to the following stages of the policy cycle: (1) agenda-setting, (2) policy formulation, (3) policy adoption, (4) policy implementation and (5) policy evaluation. Additionally, we presented the knowledge gaps relevant to using narrative to impact health policy-making. Eighteen studies met the eligibility criteria, and included case studies (n = 15), participatory action research (n = 1), documentary analysis (n = 1) and biographical method (n = 1). The majority were of very low methodological quality. In addition, none of the studies formally evaluated the effectiveness of the narrative-based interventions. Findings suggest that narratives may have a positive influence when used as inspiration and empowerment tools to stimulate policy inquiries, as educational and awareness tools to initiate policy discussions and gain public support, and as advocacy and lobbying tools to formulate, adopt or implement policy. There is also evidence of undesirable effects of using narratives. In one case study, narrative use led to widespread insurance reimbursement of a therapy for breast cancer that was later proven to be ineffective. Another case study described how the use of narrative inappropriately exaggerated the perceived risk of a procedure, which led to limiting its use and preventing a large number of patients from its benefits. A third case study described how optimistic ‘cure’ or ‘hope’ stories of children with cancer were selectively used to raise money for cancer research that ignored the negative realities. The majority of included studies did not provide information on the definition or content of narratives, the theoretical framework underlying the narrative intervention or the possible predictors of the success of narrative interventions. The existing evidence base precludes any robust inferences about the impact of narrative interventions on health policy-making. We discuss the implications of the findings for research and policy. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (ID = CRD42018085011 ).

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The need for primary health care reform to develop the competencies of CHWs in HCWM is suggested and PHC and HCWM policies should address the infrastructure deficit in low resource communities.
Abstract: In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) working in community-based care (CBC) programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW), there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs We used three ethnographic approaches to collect data: focus group discussions, participant observations and informal discussions Data was collected from 85 CHWs working in 29 communities in the Durban metropolis, South Africa Data collection took place from July 2013 to August 2014 CHWs provided nursing care activities to patients many of whom were incontinent or bedridden Some the patients were living with HIV/AIDS/TB, stroke, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and high blood pressure These caregiving activities generate sharps and infectious waste but CHWs and family members did not segregate HCW according to the risk posed as stipulated by the HCWM policy In addition, HCW was left with domestic waste Major barriers to proper HCWM identified by CHWs include, lack of assistance from family members in assisting patients to use the toilet or change diapers and removing HCW from homes, irregular waste collection by waste collectors, inadequate water for practicing hygiene and sanitation, long distance between the house and the toilets and poor conditions of communal toilets and pit latrines As a result of these barriers, HCW was illegally dumped along roads or in the bush, burnt openly and buried within the yards Liquid HCW such as vomit, urine and sputum were disposed in open spaces near the homes Current policies on primary health care (PHC) and HCWM in South Africa have not paid attention to HCWM Findings suggest the need for primary health care reform to develop the competencies of CHWs in HCWM In addition, PHC and HCWM policies should address the infrastructure deficit in low resource communities In order for low-and-middle-income-countries (LMICs) to develop effective community health worker programmes, there is a need for synergies in PHC and HCWM policies

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Media research is crucial to understanding the complex ways in which attitudes towards policy interventions shape, and are shaped by, public discourses and can provide public health advocates with insights into strategies to successfully position policy arguments, and highlights key insights and gaps.
Abstract: Media coverage plays a key role in shaping public and political attitudes towards policy interventions to improve health. We reviewed studies of news media to identify the arguments used to frame policies that address risk factors for chronic disease, and the impact of different arguments on attitudes to policy. Drawing on a previous scoping review, we identified a subsample of 49 studies of media framing of policies to address risk factors for lifestyle-related chronic disease for further analysis. We extracted and synthesised data to explore key themes. Of the limited research that has been undertaken, most studies have focused on tobacco policy, followed by alcohol, with a small number of studies of food and beverage policies. Studies have primarily used content analysis. Our synthesis demonstrated that advocates and opponents draw on five frames: health, social, economic, practical and ideological. Only a small number of studies have examined the impact of framing on public attitudes towards policy interventions, although such studies have tended to focus on the impact of how problems, rather than solutions (i.e. policies) are framed. Media research is crucial to understanding the complex ways in which attitudes towards policy interventions shape, and are shaped by, public discourses and can provide public health advocates with insights into strategies to successfully position policy arguments. This review highlights key insights and gaps in the hope that this will stimulate further research that will enhance public health advocates' abilities to promote effective public health policy.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Oct 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC, but messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients.
Abstract: Introduction The goal of palliative care (PC) is to improve the quality of life of terminal stage patients and their families. The subject frequently appears in the mass-media and this helps create a socially accepted identity. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse PC related news items appeared in the Spanish written media. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed. Considering diffusion, scope and the range in editorial policy criteria, four printed newspapers (PN) were selected, together with four exclusively digital media sources (DM). Through Mynews, a newspaper content depository, and the search tool for each DM website, articles published between 2009 and 2014 which included the terms "palliative care" and "palliative medicine" were sought. A questionnaire was created to characterise each article identified and a descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results A total of 627 articles were identified, of which 359 (57%) were published in PN (42% in the printed editions -PE- 16% in their online editions -OE-) and 268 (43%) in DM. In general, they appeared mainly in sections concerning Health (23%), Culture and Society (18%) and General/Home News (15%). In PE, just 2% were found in the Health section and nearly 70% in Culture and Society and General/Home News. Most of the articles were informative in nature and contained socio-political messages (90%). Statements by PC professionals were found in 35% of the articles and by politicians in 32%. The most frequent content was related to facing end of life (74%) and patient quality of life (70%). Conclusions The Spanish written media reflects the socio-political interest aroused by PC. Nevertheless, messages circulating about PC do not describe professional practice, or the contribution of the same for patients. Content more in line with the clinical practice might help contribute to the development of this new area of medicine.

13 citations


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1984
Abstract: 1. How Does an Idea's Time Come? 2. Participants on the Inside of Government 3. Outside of Government, But Not Just Looking In 4. Processes: Origins, Rationality, Incrementalism, and Garbage Cans 5. Problems 6. The Policy Primeval Soup 7. The Political Stream 8. The Policy Window, and Joining the Streams 9. Wrapping Things Up 10. Some Further Reflections: New Case Studies Thoughts About the Modeling Appendix on Methods: The Interviews Coding Case Studies Noninterview Measures of Agenda Status.

10,707 citations


"Print media coverage of primary hea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The news media is located at the interface between public and policy agendas, and plays a major role in setting policy agendas [25] as well as providing a window into issues concerning the general population [26,27] and helping influence policy agendas by focusing public attention on particular issues at the expense of others [26–29]....

    [...]



Journal ArticleDOI

1,661 citations


"Print media coverage of primary hea..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...Through the gatekeeping process, media organizations help determine what is and what is not covered, thereby influencing policy agendas [36,37]....

    [...]

  • ...The gatekeeping literature suggests that news media coverage does not necessarily reflect the salience of issues in the real world, but that media organizations prioritize items for publication based on what they consider newsworthy [35-37]....

    [...]

  • ...Implications for research Our finding that some issues, such as accountability of the state sector’s role in financing and delivery, received prominent coverage in the print media, while others, such as rape, received limited coverage is consistent with the literature on gatekeeping [35-37]....

    [...]

  • ...Potential news items are moved along, halted or discarded as they pass through news channels from the source to a reporter to a number of editors [35-37]....

    [...]


Book
01 Jun 2009
Abstract: The United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II. After 1950, UNICEF turned to focus on general programs for the improvement of children's welfare worldwide, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts. The organization concentrates on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact on the lives of the most disadvantaged children in developing countries, such as the prevention and treatment of disease, child healthcare, malnutrition, illiteracy, and other welfare services.

1,059 citations