# Probability of Power Depletion in SRS Cross-Talk and Optimum Detection Threshold for Minimum BER in a WDM Receiver

TL;DR: In this paper, the probability of power depletion due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is derived for an arbitrary number of interferers to estimate bit error rate and power penalty of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) receiver.

Abstract: In this paper, the probability of power depletion due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is derived for an arbitrary number of interferers to estimate bit error rate and power penalty of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) receiver. Gaussian function approximation can be used only when the numbers of interferers is very large. The effects of number of interfering channels, channel separation and receiver noise on the bit error rate (BER) are studied. Minimum BER varies non-monotonically with channel separation. Optimum detection thresholds for minimum BER in the WDM receiver in presence of SRS crosstalk are investigated and summarized in tabular form.

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Aston University

^{1}TL;DR: How predictions were made from the outset of research in laser based optical communications and how they have evolved to their present form, accurately predicting the performance of coherently detected communication systems are described.

Abstract: In this paper, we review the historical evolution of predictions of the performance of optical communication systems. We will describe how such predictions were made from the outset of research in laser based optical communications and how they have evolved to their present form, accurately predicting the performance of coherently detected communication systems.

149Â citations

### Cites background from "Probability of Power Depletion in S..."

...As with the Kerr effect, walk-off between channels has a significant effect [295], but unlike the Kerr effect, the resultant penalties are strongly dependent on the channel frequency [296]....

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01 Dec 2013TL;DR: In this article, the influence of signal-crosstalk beat noise on the performance of a preamplified WDM receiver is investigated assuming both Gaussian and non-Gaussian model.

Abstract: Component crosstalk causes severe system performance degradation in an optical network. In this paper the influence of the component crosstalk originated from signal-crosstalk beat noise, on the performance of a preamplified WDM receiver is investigated assuming both Gaussian and non-Gaussian model. From the analysis it is evident that for the finite interfering channels the results obtained using non-Gaussian model varies significantly from Gaussian model in terms of BER and the optimum detection threshold for obtaining minimum BER, but as the number of interfering channels approaches large value the variations are minimized. Effects on BER and optimum detection thresholds for minimum bit error rates are compared, summarized and analyzed in both graphical and tabular form for the two different model.

4Â citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the optimum detection threshold for minimum bit error rate (BER) due to four-wave mixing is calculated taking the probability distribution of power depletion as binomial and considering nonuniform channel spacing.

Abstract: In this paper, optimum detection threshold for minimum bit error rate (BER) due to four-wave mixing is calculated taking the probability distribution of power depletion as binomial and considering nonuniform channel spacing. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing has been assumed for the worst-case analysis. The effects of the number of interfering channels, receiver noise, and input power on the BER in the presence of four-wave mixing are studied. The optimum detection threshold for minimum BER is studied as a function of the number of channels. This optimum threshold significantly deviates from the conventional threshold in the Gaussian distribution approximation as the channel number increases beyond three.

3Â citations

01 Jan 2014

TL;DR: A SRS-aware RWA scheme, called Assign Minimum Interference and Shortest (AMINS) algorithm is proposed to minimize the effect of SRS in the network and shows that AMINS outperform First-Fit in the mentioned topologies.

Abstract: In this paper, the implication of Stimulated Raman Scattering in Routing Wavelength Assignment (RWA) is investigated and identified by analyzing the SRS parameters that related to RWA in the network and its capabilities of influence the network performance. Then, a SRS-aware RWA scheme, called Assign Minimum Interference and Shortest (AMINS) algorithm is proposed to minimize the effect of SRS in the network. Finally the proposed SRS-aware RWA scheme is tested in 15-node Mesh and 14- node NSF under different setting of input power and wavelength capacity for performance evaluation. The result shows that AMINS outperform First-Fit in the mentioned topologies.

1Â citations

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01 Nov 2014TL;DR: In this article, the implication of Stimulated Raman Scattering in Routing Wavelength Assignment (RWA) is investigated and identified by analyzing the SRS parameters that related to RWA in the network and its capabilities of influence the network performance.

Abstract: In this paper, the implication of Stimulated Raman Scattering in Routing Wavelength Assignment (RWA) is investigated and identified by analyzing the SRS parameters that related to RWA in the network and its capabilities of influence the network performance. Then, a SRS-aware RWA scheme, called Assign Minimum Interference and Shortest (AMINS) algorithm is proposed to minimize the effect of SRS in the network. Finally the proposed SRS-aware RWA scheme is tested in 15-node Mesh and 14-node NSF under different setting of input power and wavelength capacity for performance evaluation. The result shows that AMINS outperform First-Fit in the mentioned topologies.

1Â citations

##### References

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Elsevier

^{1}TL;DR: The field of nonlinear fiber optics has advanced enough that a whole book was devoted to it as discussed by the authors, which has been translated into Chinese, Japanese, and Russian languages, attesting to the worldwide activity in the field.

Abstract: Nonlinear fiber optics concerns with the nonlinear optical phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. Although the field ofnonlinear optics traces its beginning to 1961, when a ruby laser was first used to generate the second-harmonic radiation inside a crystal [1], the use ofoptical fibers as a nonlinear medium became feasible only after 1970 when fiber losses were reduced to below 20 dB/km [2]. Stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatterings in single-mode fibers were studied as early as 1972 [3] and were soon followed by the study of other nonlinear effects such as self- and crossphase modulation and four-wave mixing [4]. By 1989, the field ofnonlinear fiber optics has advanced enough that a whole book was devoted to it [5]. This book or its second edition has been translated into Chinese, Japanese, and Russian languages, attesting to the worldwide activity in the field of nonlinear fiber optics.

15,770Â citations

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01 Jan 1965

TL;DR: This chapter discusses the concept of a Random Variable, the meaning of Probability, and the axioms of probability in terms of Markov Chains and Queueing Theory.

Abstract: Part 1 Probability and Random Variables 1 The Meaning of Probability 2 The Axioms of Probability 3 Repeated Trials 4 The Concept of a Random Variable 5 Functions of One Random Variable 6 Two Random Variables 7 Sequences of Random Variables 8 Statistics Part 2 Stochastic Processes 9 General Concepts 10 Random Walk and Other Applications 11 Spectral Representation 12 Spectral Estimation 13 Mean Square Estimation 14 Entropy 15 Markov Chains 16 Markov Processes and Queueing Theory

13,886Â citations

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01 Jan 2002

TL;DR: In this paper, the meaning of probability and random variables are discussed, as well as the axioms of probability, and the concept of a random variable and repeated trials are discussed.

Abstract: Part 1 Probability and Random Variables 1 The Meaning of Probability 2 The Axioms of Probability 3 Repeated Trials 4 The Concept of a Random Variable 5 Functions of One Random Variable 6 Two Random Variables 7 Sequences of Random Variables 8 Statistics Part 2 Stochastic Processes 9 General Concepts 10 Random Walk and Other Applications 11 Spectral Representation 12 Spectral Estimation 13 Mean Square Estimation 14 Entropy 15 Markov Chains 16 Markov Processes and Queueing Theory

12,407Â citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the parametric four-photon gain for light pulses decreases for fibers longer than a characteristic length, which is related to the common experimental observation that stimulated parametric emission is usually prominent only in short fibers while in long fibers stimulated Raman scattering dominates.

Abstract: We find that the parametric four-photon gain for light pulses decreases for fibers longer than a characteristic length. This length is related to the common experimental observation that stimulated parametric emission is usually prominent only in short fibers while in long fibers stimulated Raman scattering dominates. Despite the fact that the actual process involves an intensity dependent bandwidth and broadening of the pump linewidth from self-phase modulation, it is possible to develop a simple expression for the characteristic length which requires only the initial pump linewidth and the low-power parametric bandwidth. This bandwidth can often be estimated from the pump wavelength and the measured frequency shift between the pump and the generated waves. Expressions for gain and amplification are derived from coupled wave equations and in the Appendixes it is shown that these are of the same form as the planewave equations, but modified by coupling coefficients called overlap integrals.

619Â citations