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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2021/03/005

Probing Primordial Features with the Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (IOP Publishing)-Vol. 2021, Iss: 03, pp 005
Abstract: The stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) offers a new opportunity to observe signals of primordial features from inflationary models. We study their detectability with future space-based gravitational waves experiments, focusing our analysis on the frequency range of the LISA mission. We compute gravitational wave spectra from primordial features by exploring the parameter space of a two-field inflation model capable of generating different classes of features. Fine-tuning in scales and amplitudes is necessary for these signals to fall in the observational windows. Once they show up, several classes of frequency-dependent oscillatory signals, characteristic of different underlying inflationary physics, may be distinguished and the SGWB provides a window on dynamics of the primordial universe independent of cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. To connect with future experimental data, we discuss two approaches of how the results may be applied to data analyses. First, we discuss the possibility of reconstructing the signal with LISA, which requires a high signal-to-noise ratio. The second more sensitive approach is to apply templates representing the spectra as estimators. For the latter purpose, we derive templates that can accurately capture the spectral features of several classes of feature signals and compare them with the SGWB produced by other physical mechanisms.

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41 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.103.063532
26 Mar 2021-Physical Review D
Abstract: Recently, the NANOGrav Collaboration has reported evidence for a common-spectrum stochastic process, which might be interpreted as the first ever detection of stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background. We discuss the possibility of the signal arising from the first- and second-order GWs in nonstandard cosmological history. We show that the NANOGrav observation can be explained by first-order GWs in the nonstandard thermal history with an early matter-dominated era, whereas the parameter space required to explain the NANOGrav observation in the standard cosmology or in the nonstandard epoch of kination domination is ruled out by the big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background observations. For the second-order GWs arising from the large primordial scalar fluctuations, we study the standard radiation domination and two specific nonstandard cases with a few forms of the primordial power spectrum ${P}_{\ensuremath{\zeta}}(k)$ to achieve abundant primordial black hole (PBH) production. We find that the NANOGrav observation can be explained with standard radiation domination for all of these ${P}_{\ensuremath{\zeta}}(k)$. Furthermore, a dustlike epoch leads to abundant PBH formation for a lower amplitude of ${P}_{\ensuremath{\zeta}}(k)$ than the radiation-dominated case and complies with the NANOGrav observation only for a few of the ${P}_{\ensuremath{\zeta}}(k)$ forms considered here, where the peak wave number is larger than the wave number range probed by NANOGrav. In this nonstandard epoch, for a broad power spectrum, PBHs are produced in a wide mass range in the planetary mass regime. A nonstandard epoch of kination domination cannot produce enough PBHs for any of the ${P}_{\ensuremath{\zeta}}(k)$ if the NANOGrav result is to be satisfied.

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30 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2021/08/030
Abstract: We identify a characteristic pattern in the scalar-induced stochastic gravitational wave background from particle production during inflation. If particle production is sufficiently efficient, the scalar power spectrum exhibits $\mathcal{O}(1)$ oscillations periodic in $k$, characteristic of a sharp feature, with an exponentially enhanced envelope. We systematically study the properties of the induced spectrum of gravitational waves sourced after inflation and find that this inherits the periodic structure in $k$, resulting in a peak in the gravitational wave energy density spectrum with $\mathcal{O}(10 \%)$ modulations. The frequency of the oscillation in the scalar power spectrum is determined by the scale of the feature during inflation and in turn sets the frequency of modulations in the gravitational wave signal. We present an explicit realisation of this phenomenon in the framework of multifield inflation, in the form of a strong sharp turn in the inflationary trajectory. The resulting stochastic background is potentially detectable in future gravitational wave observatories, and considerations of backreaction and perturbativity can be used to constrain the parameter space from the theoretical side. Our work motivates more extensive research linking primordial features to observable properties of the stochastic background of gravitational waves, and dedicated development in data analysis for their detection.

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Topics: Gravitational wave background (70%), Gravitational wave (59%), Spectral density (55%) ... read more

21 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.104.023506
06 Jul 2021-Physical Review D
Abstract: We discuss features of the inflaton potential that can lead to a strong enhancement of the power spectrum of curvature perturbations. We show that a steep steplike feature induces an enhancement of the spectrum by several orders of magnitude within a certain range of scales. It also produces a distinctive oscillatory pattern. We study the origin of the oscillations and the additive effect of several steps. We analyze a simplified potential, with an ad hoc introduction of steps at certain field values, but also discuss the possible application to supergravity models.

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Topics: Inflaton (60%)

11 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2021/06/001
Abstract: We investigate in detail the spectrum of gravitational waves induced by a peaked primordial curvature power spectrum generated in single field inflationary models. We argue that the $f_{\rm NL}$ parameter can be inferred by measuring the high frequency spectral tilt of the induced gravitational waves. We also show that the intrinsically non-Gaussian impact of $f_{\rm NL}$ in $\Omega_{\rm GW}$ is to broaden its peak, although at a negligible level in order not to overproduce primordial black holes. We discuss possible degeneracies in the high frequency spectral tilt between $f_{\rm NL}$ and a general equation of state of the universe $w$. Finally, we discuss the constraints on the amplitude, peak and slope (or equivalently, $f_{\rm NL}$) of the primordial power spectrum by combining current and future gravitational wave experiments with limits on $\mu$ distortions from the cosmic microwave background.

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Topics: Spectral density (53%), Gravitational wave (53%), Primordial black hole (52%) ... read more

8 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2021/04/045
Abstract: Enormous information about interactions is contained in the non-Gaussianities of the primordial curvature perturbations, which are essential to break the degeneracy of inflationary models. We study the primordial bispectra for k/G inflation models predicting both sharp and broad peaks in the primordial scalar power spectrum. We calculate the non-Gaussianity parameter $f_{\mathrm{NL}}$ in the equilateral limit and squeezed limit numerically, and confirm that the consistency relation holds in these models. Even though $f_{\mathrm{NL}}$ becomes large at the scales before the power spectrum reaches the peak and the scales where there are wiggles in the power spectrum, it remains to be small at the peak scales. Therefore, the contribution of non-Gaussianity to the scalar induced secondary gravitational waves is expected to be negligible.

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Topics: Spectral density (53%), Non-Gaussianity (52%), Scalar (mathematics) (50%)

7 Citations


203 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525898
Abstract: We report on the implications for cosmic inflation of the 2018 Release of the Planck CMB anisotropy measurements. The results are fully consistent with the two previous Planck cosmological releases, but have smaller uncertainties thanks to improvements in the characterization of polarization at low and high multipoles. Planck temperature, polarization, and lensing data determine the spectral index of scalar perturbations to be $n_\mathrm{s}=0.9649\pm 0.0042$ at 68% CL and show no evidence for a scale dependence of $n_\mathrm{s}.$ Spatial flatness is confirmed at a precision of 0.4% at 95% CL with the combination with BAO data. The Planck 95% CL upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, $r_{0.002}<0.10$, is further tightened by combining with the BICEP2/Keck Array BK15 data to obtain $r_{0.002}<0.056$. In the framework of single-field inflationary models with Einstein gravity, these results imply that: (a) slow-roll models with a concave potential, $V" (\phi) < 0,$ are increasingly favoured by the data; and (b) two different methods for reconstructing the inflaton potential find no evidence for dynamics beyond slow roll. Non-parametric reconstructions of the primordial power spectrum consistently confirm a pure power law. A complementary analysis also finds no evidence for theoretically motivated parameterized features in the Planck power spectrum, a result further strengthened for certain oscillatory models by a new combined analysis that includes Planck bispectrum data. The new Planck polarization data provide a stringent test of the adiabaticity of the initial conditions. The polarization data also provide improved constraints on inflationary models that predict a small statistically anisotropic quadrupolar modulation of the primordial fluctuations. However, the polarization data do not confirm physical models for a scale-dependent dipolar modulation.

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Topics: Planck temperature (66%), Planck (59%), Inflation (cosmology) (56%) ... read more

3,391 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Mar 2004-
Abstract: We present in a manifestly gauge-invariant form the theory of classical linear gravitational perturbations in part I, and a quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in part II. Part I includes applications to several important examples arising in cosmology: a univese dominated by hydrodynamical matter, a universe filled with scalar-field matter, and higher-derivative theories of gravity. The growth rates of perturbations are calculated analytically in most interesting cases. The analysis is applied to study the evolution of fluctuations in inflationary universe models. Part II includes a unified description of the quantum generation and evolution of inhomogeneities about a classial Friedmann background. The method is based on standard canonical quantization of the action for cosmological perturbations which has been reduced to an expression in terms of a single gauge-invariant variable. The spectrum of density perturbations originating in quantum fluctuations is calculated in universe with hydrodynamical matter, in inflationary universe models with scalar-field matter, and in higher-derivative theories of gravity. The gauge-invariant theory of classical and quantized cosmological perturbations developed in parts I and II is applied in part III to several interesting physical problems. It allows a simple derivation of the relation between temperature anistropes in the cosmic microwave background. radiation and the gauge-invariant potential for metric perturbations. The generation and evolution of gravitational waves is studied. As another example, a simple analysis of entropy perturbations and non-scale-invariant spectra in inflationary universe models is presented. The gauge-invariant theory of cosmological perturbations also allows a consistent and gauge-invariant definition of statistical fluctuations.

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Topics: Inflation (cosmology) (65%), De Sitter universe (65%), Metric expansion of space (64%) ... read more

2,568 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVD.63.023506
27 Dec 2000-Physical Review D
Abstract: We study adiabatic ~curvature! and entropy ~isocurvature! perturbations produced during a period of cosmological inflation that is driven by multiple scalar fields with an arbitrary interaction potential. A local rotation in field space is performed to separate out the adiabatic and entropy modes. The resulting field equations show explicitly how on large scales entropy perturbations can source adiabatic perturbations if the background solution follows a curved trajectory in field space, and how adiabatic perturbations cannot source entropy perturbations in the long-wavelength limit. It is the effective mass of the entropy field that determines the amplitude of entropy perturbations during inflation. We present two applications of the equations. First, we show why one in general expects the adiabatic and entropy perturbations to be correlated at the end of inflation, and calculate the cross correlation in the context of a double inflation model with two non-interacting fields. Second, we consider two-field preheating after inflation, examining conditions under which entropy perturbations can alter the large-scale curvature perturbation and showing how our new formalism has advantages in numerical stability when the background solution follows a non-trivial trajectory in field space.

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Topics: Entropy (arrow of time) (62%), Entropy rate (60%), Adiabatic process (58%) ... read more

778 Citations

Open access
Pau Amaro-Seoane1, Heather Audley1, Stanislav Babak1, John M. Baker  +80 moreInstitutions (3)
02 Feb 2017-
Abstract: Following the selection of The Gravitational Universe by ESA, and the successful flight of LISA Pathfinder, the LISA Consortium now proposes a 4 year mission in response to ESA's call for missions for L3. The observatory will be based on three arms with six active laser links, between three identical spacecraft in a triangular formation separated by 2.5 million km. LISA is an all-sky monitor and will offer a wide view of a dynamic cosmos using Gravitational Waves as new and unique messengers to unveil The Gravitational Universe. It provides the closest ever view of the infant Universe at TeV energy scales, has known sources in the form of verification binaries in the Milky Way, and can probe the entire Universe, from its smallest scales near the horizons of black holes, all the way to cosmological scales. The LISA mission will scan the entire sky as it follows behind the Earth in its orbit, obtaining both polarisations of the Gravitational Waves simultaneously, and will measure source parameters with astrophysically relevant sensitivity in a band from below $10^{-4}\,$Hz to above $10^{-1}\,$Hz.

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Topics: Gravitational wave (58%), Universe (54%)

641 Citations

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