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Journal ArticleDOI

Process-Oriented Stream Classification Pipeline: A Literature Review

09 Sep 2022-Applied Sciences-Vol. 12, Iss: 18, pp 9094-9094
TL;DR: This survey explores, summarizes, and categorizes work within the domain of stream classification and identifies core research threads over the past few years, which are structured based on the stream classification process to facilitate coordination within this complex topic.
Abstract: Due to the rise of continuous data-generating applications, analyzing data streams has gained increasing attention over the past decades. A core research area in stream data is stream classification, which categorizes or detects data points within an evolving stream of observations. Areas of stream classification are diverse—ranging, e.g., from monitoring sensor data to analyzing a wide range of (social) media applications. Research in stream classification is related to developing methods that adapt to the changing and potentially volatile data stream. It focuses on individual aspects of the stream classification pipeline, e.g., designing suitable algorithm architectures, an efficient train and test procedure, or detecting so-called concept drifts. As a result of the many different research questions and strands, the field is challenging to grasp, especially for beginners. This survey explores, summarizes, and categorizes work within the domain of stream classification and identifies core research threads over the past few years. It is structured based on the stream classification process to facilitate coordination within this complex topic, including common application scenarios and benchmarking data sets. Thus, both newcomers to the field and experts who want to widen their scope can gain (additional) insight into this research area and find starting points and pointers to more in-depth literature on specific issues and research directions in the field.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors proposed two new incremental learning approaches for the travel time prediction problem for taxi GPS data streams in different scenarios and compare the same with three other existing methods, including Support Vector Regression, Randomized K-Nearest Neighbor Regression with Spherical Distance and Incremental Polynomial Regression.
Abstract: Abstract The analysis of data streams offers a great opportunity for development of new methodologies and applications in the area of Intelligent Transportation Systems. In this paper, we propose two new incremental learning approaches for the travel time prediction problem for taxi GPS data streams in different scenarios and compare the same with three other existing methods. An extensive performance evaluation using four real life datasets indicate that when the training data size is small the Support Vector Regression method is the best choice considering both prediction accuracy and total computation time. However when the training data size is large to moderate then the Randomized K-Nearest Neighbor Regression with Spherical Distance (RKNNRSD) and the Incremental Polynomial Regression become the methods of choice. When continuous prediction of remaining travel time along the trajectory of a trip is considered we find that the RKNNRSD is the method of choice. A Real-time Speeding Alert System (RSAS) and a Driver Suspected Speeding Scorecard (DSSS) using the RKNNRSD method are proposed which have great potential for improving travel safety.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this article, a graph transformer network (GTN) is proposed for handwritten character recognition, which can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters.
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

42,067 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides an introduction to the WEKA workbench, reviews the history of the project, and, in light of the recent 3.6 stable release, briefly discusses what has been added since the last stable version (Weka 3.4) released in 2003.
Abstract: More than twelve years have elapsed since the first public release of WEKA. In that time, the software has been rewritten entirely from scratch, evolved substantially and now accompanies a text on data mining [35]. These days, WEKA enjoys widespread acceptance in both academia and business, has an active community, and has been downloaded more than 1.4 million times since being placed on Source-Forge in April 2000. This paper provides an introduction to the WEKA workbench, reviews the history of the project, and, in light of the recent 3.6 stable release, briefly discusses what has been added since the last stable version (Weka 3.4) released in 2003.

19,603 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples, which is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) and the ROC convex hull strategy.
Abstract: An approach to the construction of classifiers from imbalanced datasets is described. A dataset is imbalanced if the classification categories are not approximately equally represented. Often real-world data sets are predominately composed of "normal" examples with only a small percentage of "abnormal" or "interesting" examples. It is also the case that the cost of misclassifying an abnormal (interesting) example as a normal example is often much higher than the cost of the reverse error. Under-sampling of the majority (normal) class has been proposed as a good means of increasing the sensitivity of a classifier to the minority class. This paper shows that a combination of our method of oversampling the minority (abnormal)cla ss and under-sampling the majority (normal) class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)tha n only under-sampling the majority class. This paper also shows that a combination of our method of over-sampling the minority class and under-sampling the majority class can achieve better classifier performance (in ROC space)t han varying the loss ratios in Ripper or class priors in Naive Bayes. Our method of over-sampling the minority class involves creating synthetic minority class examples. Experiments are performed using C4.5, Ripper and a Naive Bayes classifier. The method is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC)and the ROC convex hull strategy.

17,313 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Frank Wilcoxon1
TL;DR: The comparison of two treatments generally falls into one of the following two categories: (a) a number of replications for each of the two treatments, which are unpaired, or (b) we may have a series of paired comparisons, some of which may be positive and some negative as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The comparison of two treatments generally falls into one of the following two categories: (a) we may have a number of replications for each of the two treatments, which are unpaired, or (b) we may have a number of paired comparisons leading to a series of differences, some of which may be positive and some negative. The appropriate methods for testing the significance of the differences of the means in these two cases are described in most of the textbooks on statistical methods.

12,871 citations

01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task, and Convolutional neural networks are shown to outperform all other techniques.
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

9,427 citations