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Journal ArticleDOI

Processamento fonológico e desempenho escolar nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental

23 Sep 2011-Revista Cefac (CEFAC Saúde e Educação)-Vol. 14, Iss: 1, pp 30-38

AbstractOBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho escolar e o processamento fonologico de escolares da 1a e 2a series, segundo o sexo e grau de escolaridade e investigar a existencia de correlacoes entre essas variaveis. METODO: participaram 88 escolares (48 meninos e 40 meninas) entre cinco e oito anos de idade, sem queixas relacionadas a fala ou a aprendizagem. Foram avaliados por meio do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (Stein,1994) e pelas provas de nomeacao rapida, repeticao de pseudopalavras e consciencia fonologica, habilidades relacionadas ao processamento fonologico. A analise estatistica se deu pelo teste de Mann-Withney U e pelo coeficiente de Spearman, com intervalo de confianca de 95%. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos escolares apresentou classificacao de desempenho inferior nos subtestes do Teste de Desempenho Escolar, com maior media de acertos para leitura. Nao houve diferenca significante entre meninos e meninas. Os escolares da 2a serie mostraram melhor desempenho em escrita, leitura e aritmetica, quando comparados aos alunos da 1a serie. Ao contrario dos desempenhos em leitura, escrita, aritmetica e consciencia fonologica, os desempenhos em acesso lexical e memoria fonologica nao diferenciaram as series. Na 1a serie, encontraram-se correlacoes positivas entre o acesso ao lexico mental e a consciencia fonologica, entre leitura e escrita e consciencia fonologica, e entre aritmetica e consciencia fonologica. Na 2a serie, identificaram-se correlacoes positivas entre escrita, leitura e aritmetica e com a consciencia fonologica, acesso ao lexico com memoria fonologica e consciencia fonologica. CONCLUSAO: os escolares da 2a serie apresentaram melhores escores de desempenho escolar e de consciencia fonologica quando comparados aos alunos 1a, apesar da maioria ter alcancado classificacao inferior a esperada para a serie, definida pelo Teste. Diferentes variaveis do processamento fonologico correlacionaram-se positivamente com o desempenho escolar.

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Journal Article
Abstract: The study investigates the relationship between rapid serial naming and phoneme awareness, and reading and spelling ability. Participants were 146 North-American children and adolescents varying in age from seven to 18 years. Approximately half of the participants (N = 71) had reading difficulties. The results suggest that rapid serial naming contributes variation to reading and spelling ability that is independent of the contribution of phoneme awareness. However, relative to this skill, rapid serial naming makes a rather modest contribution to learning to read and spell in an alphabetic writing system. Further analyses suggested that rapid serial naming is particularly important for the development of the ability to read texts rapidly and accurately, whereas phoneme awareness is particularly important for the development of the ability to read by phonological recoding, that is, by translating letters or group of letters into their phonological codes. Finally, there was little indication that the role played by either phoneme awareness or rapid serial naming interacts with age or reading ability

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Objetivo: verificar a eficacia de um programa de intervencao fonologica em escolares de risco para a dislexia. Metodos: participaram desse estudo 40 escolares do 1o ano do ensino fundamental, de ambos os generos, com idade entre 5 anos e 11 meses a 6 anos e 7 meses. Os escolares foram divididos em dois grupos: GI (20 escolares sem risco para dislexias) e GII (20 escolares com risco para dislexia), ambos os grupos foram submetidos ao programa de intervencao fonologica, composto por tarefas de identificacao dos sons e das letras do alfabeto em sequencia e em ordem aleatoria, identificacao e producao de rima, producao de rima com frases, identificacao e manipulacao de palavras, identificacao e producao de silabas, segmentacao e analise silabica, identificacao e segmentacao fonemica, substituicao, sintese, analise e discriminacao fonemica. Em situacao de pre e pos-testagem, todos os sujeitos desse estudo foram submetidos a aplicacao do Protocolo de Avaliacao das Habilidades Cognitivo-Liguisticas - versao coletiva e individual. Resultados: na comparacao da pre com a pos-testagem do desempenho dos escolares de GI e GII, houve diferenca estatistica para os subtestes das habilidades de leitura, escrita, consciencia fonologica, processamento auditivo e velocidade de processamento, indicando media de desempenho superior para GII na pos-testagem comparada a pre-testagem. Conclusao: o programa de intervencao fonologica foi eficaz para os escolares de risco para a dislexia, pois, possibilitou o desenvolvimento da consciencia fonologica por meio do trabalho interventivo, auxiliando na aquisicao das habilidades necessarias para o aprendizado da leitura e da escrita.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name tended to improve with age, which was not the case, however, with schoolchildren who had ADHD or dyslexia.
Abstract: Introduction: The effective development of reading and writing skills requires the concerted action of several abilities, one of which is phonological processing. One of the foremost components of phonological processing is rapid automatized naming (RAN)- the ability to identify and recognize a given item by the activation and concomitant articulation of its name. Objective: To assess the RAN performance of schoolchildren with dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their peers. Methods: In total, 70 schoolchildren aged between 8‒11 years participated in the study. Of these, 16 children had a multiprofessional diagnosis of ADHD while 14 had been diagnosed with dyslexia. Matched with these groups, 40 schoolchildren with no history of developmental impairments were also evaluated. The RAN test was administered to assess the length of time required to name a series of familiar visual stimuli. The statistical analysis was conducted using measures of descriptive statistics and the 2-sample t-test at the 5% significance level. Results: The performance of the group with dyslexia was inferior to that of the control group, in all tasks and the ADHD group had inferior performance for color and letters-naming tasks. The schoolchildren with dyslexia and those with ADHD showed very similar response times. Age has shown to be an important variable to be analyzed separately. Children with typical language development have faster answers as they aged on colors and digits tasks while children with dyslexia or ADHD do not show improvement with age. Conclusions: The schoolchildren with dyslexia took longer to complete all tasks and ADHD took longer to complete digits and objects tasks in comparison to their peers with typical development. This ability tends to improve with age, which is not the case, however, with schoolchildren who have ADHD or dyslexia.

14 citations


Cites background or result from "Processamento fonológico e desempen..."

  • ...…impairment in rapid naming is not specific of reading disorders; in fact, recent studies support the findings of the present study by showing a relationship with rapid naming deficits in individuals with ADHD, chiefly in the rapid reading of letters, colors, and objects (Tenório and Ávila, 2012)....

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  • ...…the relationship between the ability of rapid serial naming performance in reading and writing, as well as the difficulties of children with dyslexia and ADHD in this ability (Purvis and Tannock, 2000; Souza et al., 2007; Tenório and Ávila, 2012; Germano and Capellini, 2008; Gooch et al., 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: OBJETIVO: estudar o desempenho de escolares de 1o e 2o anos do Ensino Fundamental (EF), em tarefas que avaliam habilidades e competencias consideradas preditoras do sucesso do aprendizado da leitura e escrita. METODOS: 73 criancas, entre seis e oito anos de idade, estudantes do 1o e 2o anos do EF de escola da rede publica de ensino da cidade de Sao Paulo, foram avaliadas por meio da aplicacao do Instrumento de Avaliacao da Leitura Inicial, composto por 20 tarefas envolvendo as habilidades e competencias de linguagem oral, conhecimento sobre escrita, processamento fonologico, compreensao e leitura e escrita. RESULTADO: foi possivel constatar que alguns escolares, tanto de 1o como de 2o ano, obtiveram desempenho inferior a media de seus grupos nas habilidades consideradas preditoras para o sucesso da leitura. Esse desempenho foi identificado a partir da porcentagem total de acertos obtida no Instrumento e a consequente classificacao dos escolares em intervalos de percentis. Os grupos escolares diferenciaram-se apenas nas tarefas relacionadas as habilidades do processamento fonologico e nas competencias de leitura e escrita, com melhor desempenho para os escolares do 2o ano, nas seguintes provas: (a) leitura de palavras; (b) leitura de pseudopalavras; (c) ditado de palavras; (d) ditado de pseudopalavras; (e) producao de rimas; (f) compreensao de leitura. CONCLUSAO: a escolarizacao influenciou o desempenho em habilidades de processamento fonologico e competencias de leitura e escrita. Habilidades de processamento fonologico e de conhecimento de escrita mostraram-se correlacionadas ao desempenho em codificacao e decodificacao, envolvidas na escrita e leitura de itens isolados.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Objetivo: investigar a contribuicao da consciencia fonologica e nomeacao seriada rapida para a aprendizagem inicial da escrita. Metodos: participaram do estudo 100 criancas, na faixa etaria de tres a seis anos e onze meses, matriculadas na educacao infantil de uma creche e uma escola municipal da cidade do Recife. Utilizou-se como instrumentos de avaliacao o Teste de Consciencia Fonologica, a tarefa de Nomeacao Seriada Rapida e um roteiro de avaliacao da escrita. Os dados foram transcritos e analisados conforme a estatistica descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: observou-se que o aumento da faixa etaria esta diretamente relacionado ao desenvolvimento dos niveis de consciencia fonologica, assim como com a diminuicao dos erros e do tempo para execucao das tarefas de NSR. Verificou-se que as criancas com mais de quatro anos, tiveram um desempenho em consciencia fonologica aquem do esperado para sua idade. Dentre as habilidades de consciencia fonologica, a consciencia silabica obteve melhores indices de pontuacoes, podendo-se observar grande dificuldade dos participantes nas tarefas de consciencia fonemica. Com relacao a escrita, a maioria das criancas estavam na fase pre-silabica. Foi possivel verificar correlacoes significantes entre as habilidades de consciencia fonologica com a nomeacao seriada rapida e escrita. Conclusao: a consciencia fonologica e nomeacao seriada rapida contribuem para a aprendizagem inicial da escrita, sendo importante o estimulo destas habilidades antes do ciclo de alfabetizacao, o que pode favorecer este processo e sinalizar, precocemente, eventuais problemas de aprendizagem. O baixo desempenho nas tarefas pode ser sugestivo da influencia de fatores socioeducacionais, devendo-se considerar o contexto de vida da crianca e as experiencias educativas vivenciadas na familia e escola.

9 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper elaborates the self-teaching hypothesis, reviews relevant evidence, and notes that current models of word recognition fail to address the quintessential problem of reading acquisition-independent generation of target pronunciations for novel orthographic strings.
Abstract: The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding functions as a self-teaching mechanism enabling the learner to independently acquire an autonomous orthographic lexicon. Successful decoding encounters with novel letter strings provide opportunities to learn word-specific print-to-meaning connections. Although it may not play a central role in skilled word recognition, phonological recoding, by virtue of its self-teaching function, is regarded as critical to successful reading acquisition. This paper elaborates the self-teaching hypothesis proposed by Jorm and Share (1983), and reviews relevant evidence. Key features of phonological recoding include an item-based rather than stage-based role in development, the progressive "lexicalization" of the process of recoding, and the importance of phonological awareness and contextual information in resolving decoding ambiguity. Although phonological skills have been shown to be primary in reading acquisition, orthographic processing appears to be an important but secondary source of individual differences. This implies an asymmetrical pattern of dissociations in both developmental and acquired reading disorders. Strong relationships between word recognition, basic phonological processing abilities and phonemic awareness are also consistent with the self-teaching notion. Finally, it is noted that current models of word recognition (both PDP and dual-route) fail to address the quintessential problem of reading acquisition-independent generation of target pronunciations for novel orthographic strings.

1,999 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An attempt is made to link the model to its role in both normal and disordered language functions, with particular reference to implications for both the normal processing of language, and its potential disorders.
Abstract: Working memory involves the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is assumed to be necessary for a wide range of complex cognitive activities. In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch proposed that it could be divided into three subsystems, one concerned with verbal and acoustic information, the phonological loop, a second, the visuospatial sketchpad providing its visual equivalent, while both are dependent upon a third attentionally-limited control system, the central executive. A fourth subsystem, the episodic buffer, has recently been proposed. These are described in turn, with particular reference to implications for both the normal processing of language, and its potential disorders. Learning outcomes The reader will be introduced to the concept of a multi-component working memory. Particular emphasis will be placed on the phonological loop component, and (a) its fractionation into a storage and processing component, (b) the neuropsychological evidence for this distinction, and (c) its implication for both native and second language learning. This will be followed by (d) a brief overview of the visuospatial sketchpad and its possible role in language, culminating in (e) discussion of the higher-level control functions of working memory which include (f) the central executive and its multi-dimensional storage system, the episodic buffer. An attempt throughout is made to link the model to its role in both normal and disordered language functions.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The last 20 years of research have produced a broad variety of converging evidence that at least three kinds of phonological processing skills are positively related to individual differences in the rate at which beginning reading skills are acquired.
Abstract: O ne of the most exciting developments in research on reading over the last two decades is the emerging consensus about the importance of phonological processing abilities in the acquisition of early reading skills (Shankweiler & Liberman, 1989; Stanovich, 1988; Wagner & Torgesen, 1987) As the term is used by those who study early reading development, phonological processing refers to an individual's mental operations that make use of the phonological or sound structure of oral language when he or she is learning how to decode written language The last 20 years of research have produced a broad variety of converging evidence that at least three kinds of phonological processing skills are positively related to individual differences in the rate at which beginning reading skills are acquired (see Adams, 1990; Brady & Shankweiler, 1991; Crowder & Wagner, 1991; and Torgesen, 1993, for recent reviews of this work) The kinds of phonological processing skills and knowledge that have been most frequently studied include phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rate of access for phonological information Types of Reading-Related Phonological Skill

885 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that working memory skills indexed by complex memory tasks represent an important constraint on the acquisition of skill and knowledge in reading and mathematics.
Abstract: This study investigated associations between working memory (measured by complex memory tasks) and both reading and mathematics abilities, as well as the possible mediating factors of fluid intelligence, verbal abilities, short-term memory (STM), and phonological awareness, in a sample of 46 6- to 11-year-olds with reading disabilities. As a whole, the sample was characterized by deficits in complex memory and visuospatial STM and by low IQ scores; language, phonological STM, and phonological awareness abilities fell in the low average range. Severity of reading difficulties within the sample was significantly associated with complex memory, language, and phonological awareness abilities, whereas poor mathematics abilities were linked with complex memory, phonological STM, and phonological awareness scores. These findings suggest that working memory skills indexed by complex memory tasks represent an important constraint on the acquisition of skill and knowledge in reading and mathematics. Possible mechanisms for the contribution of working memory to learning, and the implications for educational practice, are considered.

698 citations