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Journal ArticleDOI

Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima microalgae and its protective effects

01 Jan 2009-African Journal of Biotechnology (Academic Journals (Kenya))-Vol. 8, Iss: 24

AbstractThe purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk’s medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against CCI4-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical formation were performed. The results revealed that the levels of NaNO3 and L-PA in growth medium had positive effects on the production of biomass (34-64 mg/day), total phenolics (4.51-16.96 mg/g d.w) and flavonoids (1.32-5.12 mg/g d.w) contents. The highest levels of these compounds were obtained in Zarrouk’s medium containing 3.77 g/L NaNO3 and 100 mg/L L-PA. The HPLC-DAD profile of all phenolic extracts of Spirulina showed the presence of large numbers of phenolic acids and flavonoids, in variable levels. Gallic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, pinostrobin and p-OH-benzoic were found as the most abundant constituents among different extracts. Polyphenolic of Spirulina exhibited antioxidant effects  CCI4-induced lipid peroxidation (inhibition %) in liver homogenate and on DPPH radical scavenging activity (with IC50 values ranged from 23.22 to 35.62 ig/ml), in dose-depended manner. Their protective potential was comparable to that of standard phenolic antioxidants (BHT, BHA and -tocopherol, with IC50 values ranged from 13.22 to 23.62 ig/ml). Thus, S. maxima can be regarded as potent natural sources of nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

Topics: Spirulina (genus) (56%), DPPH (51%), Lipid peroxidation (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.
Abstract: Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

207 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Microalgae can be regarded as an alternative and promising food ingredient due to their nutritional composition, richness in bioactive compounds, and because they are considered a sustainable protein source for the future.
Abstract: Microalgae can be regarded as an alternative and promising food ingredient due to their nutritional composition, richness in bioactive compounds, and because they are considered a sustainable protein source for the future. The aim of this work was to evaluate microalgae ( Arthrospira platensis F&M-C256, Chlorella vulgaris Allma, Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 and Phaeodactylum tricornutum F&M-M40) as innovative ingredients to enhance functional properties of cookies. Two biomass levels were tested and compared to control: 2% (w/w) and 6% (w/w), to provide high levels of algae-bioactives. The cookies sensory and physical properties were evaluated during eight weeks showing high color and texture stability. Cookies prepared with A. platensis and C. vulgaris presented significantly ( p A. platensis cookies were preferred. Besides, A. platensis also provided a structuring effect in terms of cookies texture. All microalgae-based cookies showed significantly higher ( p in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to the control. No significant difference ( p in vitro digestibility between microalgae cookies and the control was found.

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TL;DR: The antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities as well as the inhibitory effects of some bioactive compounds from microalgae extracts on β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal death are discussed extensively.
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56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO₂ leads to an increase in toxicity compared to pristine non-stabilised forms.
Abstract: An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO₂) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO₂) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO₂ did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO₂ concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO₂ aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO₂ dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO₂ EC₅₀ values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO₂ EC₅₀ values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce(3+)/Ce(4+)) in PAA-CeO₂ exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096-0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO₂ exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO₂ nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO₂ nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO₂ leads to an increase in toxicity compared to pristine non-stabilised forms.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to study the effect of incorporation of biomass and phycocyanin extracts of Spirulina platensis growing in define media at large scales (300 liters, limited in nitrogen and high salinity) to traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocyanin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. The approximate and nutrition composition of S. platensis biomass showed high quantity (% dry weight, dw.) of phycocyanin (13.51%, natural food colorant), tocopherols (0.43%), carotenoids (2.65%), vitamins C (1.25%), -6, -3 fatty acids, essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cr, Se, and others) and antioxidant compounds includes: total phenolic (1.73%), flavonoids (0.87%) and glutathione (0.245 mM). FPs showed a high oxidative stability during storage (30 days) periods (as assessed by antiradical scavenging activity of DPPH and TBA test), compared with that in untreated food products (control). Data of sensory evaluation revealed that FPs containing S. platensis biomass or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/ aroma, flavor, texture, the global appreciation and overall acceptability). S. platensis FPs presented an accentuated green tonality, which increase with the quantity of added biomass. Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.

48 citations


References
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Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.

11,904 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is growing evidence that aging involves, in addition, progressive changes in free radical-mediated regulatory processes that result in altered gene expression.
Abstract: At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents. At moderate concentrations, how...

8,461 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Limiting discussion to stress-induced phenylpropanoids eliminates few of the structural classes, because many compounds that are constitutive in one plant species or tissue can be induced by various stresses in another species or in another tissue of the same plant.
Abstract: Phenylpropanoid compounds encompass a wide range of structural classes and biological functions. Limiting discussion to stress-induced phenylpropanoids eliminates few of the structural classes, because many compounds thst are constitutive in one plant species or tissue can be induced by various stresses in another species or in another tissue of the same plant (Beggs et al., 1987; Christie et al., 1994).

3,805 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Feb 1996-BMJ
TL;DR: Flavonoids offer an explanation for the suggested beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables in coronary heart disease and people with very low intakes of flavonoids have higher risks of coronary disease.
Abstract: Objective: To study the association between dietary intake of flavonoids and subsequent coronary mortality. Design: A cohort study based on data collected at the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey from 1967-72 and followed up until 1992. Settings: 30 communities from different parts of Finland. Subjects: 5133 Finnish men and women aged 30-69 years and free from heart disease at baseline. Main outcome measure: Dietary intake of flavonoids, total mortality, and coronary mortality. Results: In women a significant inverse gradient was observed between dietary intake of flavonoids and total and coronary mortality. The relative risks between highest and lowest quarters of flavonoid intake adjusted for age, smoking, serum cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, and body mass index were 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.90) and 0.54 (0.33 to 0.87) for total and coronary mortality, respectively. The corresponding values for men were 0.76 (0.63 to 0.93) and 0.78 (0.56 to 1.08), respectively. Adjustment for intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids weakened the associations for women; the relative risks for coronary heart disease were 0.73 (0.41 to 1.32) and 0.67 (0.44 to 1.00) in women and men, respectively. Intakes of onions and apples, the main dietary sources of flavonoids, presented similar associations. The relative risks for coronary mortality between highest and lowest quarters of apple intake were 0.57 (0.36 to 0.91) and 0.81 (0.61 to 1.09) for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values for onions were 0.50 (0.30 to 0.82) and 0.74 (0.53 to 1.02), respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that people with very low intakes of flavonoids have higher risks of coronary disease. Key messages Key messages The protective effect of flavonoids was associated with a diet high in intake of apples and onions The effect may be mediated through prevention of oxidation of low density lipoproteins but other mechanisms could be involved Flavonoids offer an explanation for the suggested beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables in coronary heart disease Further studies should concentrate on the effects of various flavonoid compounds and on populations with different intakes

1,284 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinal plants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinal plants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol. The total phenolic content, analyzed using Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent, of the samples varied from 3.13 to 32.32 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The total flavonoid concentrations, detected using 2% aluminum chloride, varied from 1.62 to 13.12 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/g dry weight. To analyze the antioxidant activity, a common stable radical chromogen, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS +), was used. The antioxidant activity measurement, expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ranged from 9.40 to 33.06 mM Trolox equivalents. With further data analysis it was found that there was a positive correlation between the total phenolic content of a given sample and its antioxidant activity, R2 = 0.7931, whereas the correlation between the total flavonoids and antioxidant activity was determined to be R2 = 0.7802. These results suggest that the level of antioxidant activity in these plants varies to a great extent. They also suggest that phenolics in these plants provide substantial antioxidant activity. Upon achievement of this survey, and using more samples, an extra benefit of these medicinal plants may be found. Flora of Algeria appears to be a rich and interesting source for supplementary ethnomedicinal and phytochemical studies.

1,276 citations