Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima microalgae and its protective effects
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk’s medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against CCI4-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical formation were performed. The results revealed that the levels of NaNO3 and L-PA in growth medium had positive effects on the production of biomass (34-64 mg/day), total phenolics (4.51-16.96 mg/g d.w) and flavonoids (1.32-5.12 mg/g d.w) contents. The highest levels of these compounds were obtained in Zarrouk’s medium containing 3.77 g/L NaNO3 and 100 mg/L L-PA. The HPLC-DAD profile of all phenolic extracts of Spirulina showed the presence of large numbers of phenolic acids and flavonoids, in variable levels. Gallic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, pinostrobin and p-OH-benzoic were found as the most abundant constituents among different extracts. Polyphenolic of Spirulina exhibited antioxidant effects CCI4-induced lipid peroxidation (inhibition %) in liver homogenate and on DPPH radical scavenging activity (with IC50 values ranged from 23.22 to 35.62 ig/ml), in dose-depended manner. Their protective potential was comparable to that of standard phenolic antioxidants (BHT, BHA and -tocopherol, with IC50 values ranged from 13.22 to 23.62 ig/ml). Thus, S. maxima can be regarded as potent natural sources of nutraceutical and functional ingredients.
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