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Journal ArticleDOI

Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide

01 Mar 1995-Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 9, Iss: 1, pp 1-22
TL;DR: The authors examines Turkish efforts to deny the Armenian genocide of 1915-17 and exposes an arrangement by which the government of Turkey has channeled funds into a supposedly objective research institute in the United States, which in turn paid the salary of a historian who served that government in its campaign to discredit scholarship on the Armen genocide.
Abstract: This article examines Turkish efforts to deny the Armenian genocide of 1915-17. Specifically, it exposes an arrangement by which the government of Turkey has channeled funds into a supposedly objective research institute in the United States, which in turn paid the salary of a historian who served that government in its campaign to discredit scholarship on the Armenian genocide. After a short review of the Armenian genocide and a range of Turkish denial efforts, three documents are reproduced in full. They include a letter that Robert Jay Lifton received from the Turkish Ambassador to the United States, and two documents that were inadvertently included with the Lifton letter—a memorandum to the Turkish Ambassador and a draft letter to Lifton for the Ambassador's signature. After a critical analysis of each document, we discuss the harmful ness of genocide denial and explore why intellectuals might engage in the denial of known genocides. The article concludes with reflections on the relationship between scholars and truth.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a survey of the history of Orientalism: In the beginning 2. Islam, the West and the rest 3. Orientalism and empire 4. The American century 5. Turmoil in the field 6. After Orientalism?
Abstract: Introduction 1. In the beginning 2. Islam, the West and the rest 3. Orientalism and empire 4. The American century 5. Turmoil in the field 6. Said's Orientalism: a book and its aftermath 7. After Orientalism? Afterword.

177 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Panossian as discussed by the authors traces the evolution of Armenia and Armenian collective identity, in the homeland and in the diaspora, from its beginnings to the eve of the Armenian nationalist movement over Gharabagh in 1988.
Abstract: The book traces the evolution of Armenia and Armenian collective identity, in the homeland and in the diaspora, from its beginnings to the eve of the Armenian nationalist movement over Gharabagh in 1988. The emphasis is on the modern era - the seventeenth century onwards, including the Soviet period. Panossian's overall approach is that of interpretive political and cultural history, centred around theories of national identity formation and nationalism. The cultural identity of the Armenian people - expressed in their art, literature, religious practice and even commerce - played a vital role in preserving national memory, and forms an important component of this study, as does the author's analysis of the Armenian Genocide in 1915.

114 citations

Book
28 May 2015
TL;DR: In this article, Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian introduces and defines her notion of "Israeli security theology" and the politics of fear within Palestine/Israel.
Abstract: This examination of Palestinian experiences of life and death within the context of Israeli settler colonialism broadens the analytical horizon to include those who 'keep on existing' and explores how Israeli theologies and ideologies of security, surveillance and fear can obscure violence and power dynamics while perpetuating existing power structures. Drawing from everyday aspects of Palestinian victimization, survival, life and death, and moving between the local and the global, Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian introduces and defines her notion of 'Israeli security theology' and the politics of fear within Palestine/Israel. She relies on a feminist analysis, invoking the intimate politics of the everyday and centering the Palestinian body, family life, memory and memorialization, birth and death as critical sites from which to examine the settler colonial state's machineries of surveillance which produce and maintain a political economy of fear that justifies colonial violence.

52 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a "thick description" of commemorative events which concentrates on the post-1980 period and documents and analyzes, for the first time, very recent commemorations of the Armenian genocide in Turkey.
Abstract: Turkey's long-standing denial of the annihilation of about one million Armenians, between 1915 and 1917, is well documented Over the past five decades, however, the nation state has come under increasing pressure from a range of internal and external sites, not only to acknowledge these grave historical atrocities, but also to name them as 'genocide' (a term coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1944, on the basis of the annihilation of the Armenians and the Holocaust, which has become a cornerstone of international legal language surrounding crimes against humanity) I begin by rehearsing the official denialist state narratives which are in play immediately following the terrible events of 1915-17 and have continued almost unchallenged in the public sphere until the 1990's, when fuelled by tectonic shifts in Turkish politics and a serious crisis of national identity, critical- revisionist strands of history-writing began to challenge the Turkish official narrative During the past two decades, there has been a proliferation of individual and collective initiatives advocating a coming to memory of the genocide at a wide range of sites: history-writing, the Law, Civic discourses, fiction, and public commemorations, among others While I trace the longer trajectory of these counter-memories, the major aim of my dissertation is to provide a "thick description" of commemorative events which concentrates on the post-1980 period and documents and analyzes, for the first time, very recent commemorations of the Armenian genocide in Turkey I suggest that challenges provoked by an ongoing commitment to the denialist ethos resulted in strategies such as a discourse of "shared pain" which unwittingly mute the transformative potential of these commemorations In the end, they operate in an in- between space of transgression and containment that reminds us of the immense complexity of the coming to memory of national "difficult pasts"

44 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on gender stereotypes in the English language and present a number of guides to non-sexist, anti-racist and anti-ableist language.
Abstract: Executive summary Abstracts and executive summaries are one of the main communication tools for disseminating the results of research. Given that a lot of information is accessed today via computer searches on keywords, it is important to be specific as to the applicability of a given study. This will usually Professional Status Disability Gender Race 40 Chapter 3 Applying the BIAS FREE Framework to research for health require specification of the particular group that was the focus of the study. Failing this, a lot of time and effort will be wasted in going through the literature that is inappropriate for specific purposes. The same points as are made for titles apply, even more strongly, to abstracts and summaries of all types. It is frustrating to read a study summarized as studying 205 people without being told their sex, race and/or other salient characteristics. Language Bias in various languages has received a great deal of attention. For the purposes of this book, we will restrict ourselves to biases in the English language. English has been criticized for being sexist, racist and ableist, and considerable efforts have been made to overcome these problems. For instance, a number of guides to non-sexist, anti-racist and anti-ableist language have been developed (see below). However, guides concerning non-sexist language usually address two problems that we have discussed under the rubric of concepts. We did so because both practices become problematic through the meaning attached to a concept, rather than being located at the level of language. We are referring to the practice of using sex-specific terms for general situations (the generic “he” – D1) and the practice of using general terms for sex-specific situations (e.g. talking about all citizens when only men have been considered – F3). The latter also applies to other non-dominant groups, such as people of colour and disabled people, when they are excluded from consideration, but this has not been noted. One manifestation of sexism in language is a non-parallel use of terms or grammar, such as when men are referred to by their last names (Mr. Smith) and women by their first names (Jane) — an obvious double standard. Similarly, dealing with women in the passive voice and men in the active voice, as is often the case, is another example of a double standard (D 1). The same treatment for both sexes easily solves this. Further, women or girls are sometimes described in derogatory or objectifying language (H 5 Objectification). An example would be a speech by the President of the Pacific Coast Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in which he shared his thoughts concerning surrogacy. He offered his sympathy to “barren women” who are condemned to remain childless, and put forward as a solution to their problem disembodied “uteri” who will produce, in a number of ways, children for these women. These “normally functioning uteri of 'off-duty' gestational specialists” would help “women who seek the bliss of motherhood” (Eichler, 1994: 193). While the “barren women” are seen as women, the women who would bear the children are not there as persons at all — although it is they who would carry all the risks associated with childbearing. This language may also carry over into research on infertility and its treatment. "...[I]n everyday language — ‘whiteness' is associated with overwhelmingly positive connotations, while 'blackness', in Roget's Thesaurus, has no fewer than sixty distinctly negative synonyms, twenty of which are related to race" (H 5) (Henry et al., 2000: 57). There are several attempts to develop guides to non-racist language, such as the British Sociological Association’s 1997 anti-racist language guide. There are also guides dealing with disability and ableist language. The British Council of Organizations of Disabled Persons (BCODP) has listed 11 disability-related stereotypes in the English language. These include portraying the disabled person as pitiable and pathetic, sinister and evil; as a burden; as an object of violence or ridicule; as curio or super cripple; as sexually abnormal; as incapable of participating in community life; and as their own worst and only enemy (H 5). Among this array of negative depictions, BCODP lists the stereotype of disabled person as “normal”, which in effect denies the whole experience of disability (F 1) (Barnes, 1992). Gender Race Ability

30 citations

References
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Book
Hannah Arendt1
01 Jan 1958
TL;DR: The Human Condition as mentioned in this paper is a classic in political and social theory, The Human Condition is a work that has proved both timeless and perpetually timely, it contains Margaret Canovan's 1998 introduction and a new foreword by Danielle Allen.
Abstract: The past year has seen a resurgence of interest in the political thinker Hannah Arendt, "the theorist of beginnings," whose work probes the logics underlying unexpected transformations-from totalitarianism to revolution. A work of striking originality, The Human Condition is in many respects more relevant now than when it first appeared in 1958. In her study of the state of modern humanity, Hannah Arendt considers humankind from the perspective of the actions of which it is capable. The problems Arendt identified then-diminishing human agency and political freedom, the paradox that as human powers increase through technological and humanistic inquiry, we are less equipped to control the consequences of our actions-continue to confront us today. This new edition, published to coincide with the sixtieth anniversary of its original publication, contains Margaret Canovan's 1998 introduction and a new foreword by Danielle Allen. A classic in political and social theory, The Human Condition is a work that has proved both timeless and perpetually timely.

7,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

2,741 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genocide: its political use in the twentieth centuryThe Oxford Handbook of Genocide StudiesImpediments to the prevention and intervention of GenocideAct and Idea in the Nazi GenocideThe Army and the Indonesian GenocideGenocide as Social PracticeDisrupting Pathways to GenocideGenicide and Human RightsResponding to GenocideStalin's GenocidesThe Prevention and Intervention of GenocideThe Concept of Genocide in International Criminal LawA People BetrayedThe Politics of Genocide, Politics of AnnihilationPurify and DestroyKnowledge and Acknowledgement in the Politics of Memory of the Armenian GenocideThe politics of N
Abstract: Genocide: its political use in the twentieth centuryThe Oxford Handbook of Genocide StudiesImpediments to the Prevention and Intervention of GenocideAct and Idea in the Nazi GenocideThe Army and the Indonesian GenocideGenocide as Social PracticeDisrupting Pathways to GenocideGenocide and Human RightsResponding to GenocideStalin's GenocidesThe Prevention and Intervention of GenocideThe Concept of Genocide in International Criminal LawA People BetrayedThe Politics of GenocideThe Politics of AnnihilationPurify and DestroyKnowledge and Acknowledgement in the Politics of Memory of the Armenian GenocideThe Politics of Naming the Armenian GenocideGenocidePurify and DestroyThe Oxford Handbook of Genocide StudiesGenocide Or Ethnocide, 1933-2007A Century of GenocideWho Must Die in Rwanda's Genocide?The Killing TrapGenocide at the MillenniumCritical Perspectives on African GenocideResponding to Modern GenocideGenocide and the Politics of MemoryCultural Genocide\"A \"\"A Problem From Hell\"\"Knowing about GenocideThe Politics of GenocideWorse Than War\"If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die\"Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth CenturyTeaching about GenocideThe Magnitude of GenocideWhat is GenocideRepresenting Genocide

370 citations

Book
01 Jan 1981

264 citations

Book
01 Jul 1994
TL;DR: The denial of the Holocaust has no more credibility than the assertion that the earth is flat as mentioned in this paper. Yet there are those who insist that the death of six million Jews and other persecuted people in Nazi concentration camps is nothing but a hoax perpetuated by a powerful Zionist conspiracy.
Abstract: The denial of the Holocaust has no more credibility than the assertion that the earth is flat. Yet there are those who insist that the death of six million Jews and other persecuted people in Nazi concentration camps is nothing but a hoax perpetuated by a powerful Zionist conspiracy. In this first full-scale history of Holocaust denial, Deborah Lipstadt shows how - despite tens of thousands of living witnesses and vast amounts of documentary evidence - this irrational idea has not only continued to gain adherents but has become an internationally organized movement. Lipstadt argues that this chilling attack on the factual record not only threatens Jews but could dramatically alter the way that truth and meaning are transmitted from one generation to another.

232 citations