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Journal ArticleDOI

Progress and Perspectives of Electrochemical CO2 Reduction on Copper in Aqueous Electrolyte

22 May 2019-Chemical Reviews (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 119, Iss: 12, pp 7610-7672

TL;DR: A broad and historical view of different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu is taken, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices.
Abstract: To date, copper is the only heterogeneous catalyst that has shown a propensity to produce valuable hydrocarbons and alcohols, such as ethylene and ethanol, from electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). There are variety of factors that impact CO2R activity and selectivity, including the catalyst surface structure, morphology, composition, the choice of electrolyte ions and pH, and the electrochemical cell design. Many of these factors are often intertwined, which can complicate catalyst discovery and design efforts. Here we take a broad and historical view of these different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices. First, we describe the various experimental probes and complementary theoretical methods that have been used to discern the mechanisms by which products are formed, and next we present our current understanding of the complex reaction networks for CO2R on Cu. We then analyze two key methods that have been used in attempts to alter the activity and selectivity of Cu: nanostructuring and the formation of bimetallic electrodes. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the future outlook for electrochemical CO2R.
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TL;DR: While the book is a standard fixture in most chemical and physical laboratories, including those in medical centers, it is not as frequently seen in the laboratories of physician's offices (those either in solo or group practice), and I believe that the Handbook can be useful in those laboratories.
Abstract: There is a special reason for reviewing this book at this time: it is the 50th edition of a compendium that is known and used frequently in most chemical and physical laboratories in many parts of the world. Surely, a publication that has been published for 56 years, withstanding the vagaries of science in this century, must have had something to offer. There is another reason: while the book is a standard fixture in most chemical and physical laboratories, including those in medical centers, it is not as frequently seen in the laboratories of physician's offices (those either in solo or group practice). I believe that the Handbook can be useful in those laboratories. One of the reasons, among others, is that the various basic items of information it offers may be helpful in new tests, either physical or chemical, which are continuously being published. The basic information may relate

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Journal ArticleDOI
Wenchao Ma1, Shunji Xie1, Tongtong Liu1, Qiyuan Fan1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jun 2020-
Abstract: Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 into multicarbon (C2+) products is a highly attractive route for CO2 utilization; however, the yield of C2+ products remains low because of the limited C2+ selectivity at high CO2 conversion rates. Here we report a fluorine-modified copper catalyst that exhibits an ultrahigh current density of 1.6 A cm−2 with a C2+ (mainly ethylene and ethanol) Faradaic efficiency of 80% for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction in a flow cell. The C2–4 selectivity reaches 85.8% at a single-pass yield of 16.5%. We show a hydrogen-assisted C–C coupling mechanism between adsorbed CHO intermediates for C2+ formation. Fluorine enhances water activation, CO adsorption and hydrogenation of adsorbed CO to CHO intermediate that can readily undergo coupling. Our findings offer an opportunity to design highly active and selective CO2 electroreduction catalysts with potential for practical application. Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 into multicarbon (C2+) products is a highly attractive route for CO2 utilization. Now, a fluorine-modified copper catalyst is shown to achieve current densities of 1.6 A cm−2 with a C2+ Faradaic efficiency of 80% for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction in a flow cell.

172 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides an in-depth assessment of core-shell structured catalysts for the thermocatalysis, photocatalytic, and electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 into synthesis gas and valuable hydrocarbons.
Abstract: Catalytic conversion of CO2 to produce fuels and chemicals is attractive in prospect because it provides an alternative to fossil feedstocks and the benefit of converting and cycling the greenhouse gas CO2 on a large scale. In today's technology, CO2 is converted into hydrocarbon fuels in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via the water gas shift reaction, but processes for direct conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals such as methane, methanol, and C2+ hydrocarbons or syngas are still far from large-scale applications because of processing challenges that may be best addressed by the discovery of improved catalysts-those with enhanced activity, selectivity, and stability. Core-shell structured catalysts are a relatively new class of nanomaterials that allow a controlled integration of the functions of complementary materials with optimised compositions and morphologies. For CO2 conversion, core-shell catalysts can provide distinctive advantages by addressing challenges such as catalyst sintering and activity loss in CO2 reforming processes, insufficient product selectivity in thermocatalytic CO2 hydrogenation, and low efficiency and selectivity in photocatalytic and electrocatalytic CO2 hydrogenation. In the preceding decade, substantial progress has been made in the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of core-shell catalysts for such potential applications. Nonetheless, challenges remain in the discovery of inexpensive, robust, regenerable catalysts in this class. This review provides an in-depth assessment of these materials for the thermocatalytic, photocatalytic, and electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 into synthesis gas and valuable hydrocarbons.

142 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Nathan S. Lewis1, Daniel G. Nocera2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: Solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year, and if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user.
Abstract: Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species.

6,324 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a method for calculating the stability of reaction intermediates of electrochemical processes on the basis of electronic structure calculations. We used that method in combination with detailed density functional calculations to develop a detailed description of the free-energy landscape of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction over Pt(111) as a function of applied bias. This allowed us to identify the origin of the overpotential found for this reaction. Adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl are found to be very stable intermediates at potentials close to equilibrium, and the calculated rate constant for the activated proton/electron transfer to adsorbed oxygen or hydroxyl can account quantitatively for the observed kinetics. On the basis of a database of calculated oxygen and hydroxyl adsorption energies, the trends in the oxygen reduction rate for a large number of different transition and noble metals can be accounted for. Alternative reaction mechanisms involving proton/electron transfer to ...

5,473 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
29 Feb 2008-Science
Abstract: Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

4,518 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Zhi Wei Seh1, Zhi Wei Seh2, Zhi Wei Seh3, Jakob Kibsgaard1  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
13 Jan 2017-Science
TL;DR: A unified theoretical framework highlights the need for catalyst design strategies that selectively stabilize distinct reaction intermediates relative to each other, and opens up opportunities and approaches to develop higher-performance electrocatalysts for a wide range of reactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND With a rising global population, increasing energy demands, and impending climate change, major concerns have been raised over the security of our energy future. Developing sustainable, fossil-free pathways to produce fuels and chemicals of global importance could play a major role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions while providing the feedstocks needed to make the products we use on a daily basis. One prospective goal is to develop electrochemical conversion processes that can convert molecules in the atmosphere (e.g., water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) into higher-value products (e.g., hydrogen, hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and ammonia) by coupling to renewable energy. Electrocatalysts play a key role in these energy conversion technologies because they increase the rate, efficiency, and selectivity of the chemical transformations involved. Today’s electrocatalysts, however, are inadequate. The grand challenge is to develop advanced electrocatalysts with the enhanced performance needed to enable widespread penetration of clean energy technologies. ADVANCES Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding several key electrochemical transformations, particularly those that involve water, hydrogen, and oxygen. The combination of theoretical and experimental studies working in concert has proven to be a successful strategy in this respect, yielding a framework to understand catalytic trends that can ultimately provide rational guidance toward the development of improved catalysts. Catalyst design strategies that aim to increase the number of active sites and/or increase the intrinsic activity of each active site have been successfully developed. The field of hydrogen evolution, for example, has seen important breakthroughs over the years in the development of highly active non–precious metal catalysts in acid. Notable advancements have also been made in the design of oxygen reduction and evolution catalysts, although there remains substantial room for improvement. The combination of theory and experiment elucidates the remaining challenges in developing further improved catalysts, often involving scaling relations among reactive intermediates. This understanding serves as an initial platform to design strategies to circumvent technical obstacles, opening up opportunities and approaches to develop higher-performance electrocatalysts for a wide range of reactions. OUTLOOK A systematic framework of combining theory and experiment in electrocatalysis helps to uncover broader governing principles that can be used to understand a wide variety of electrochemical transformations. These principles can be applied to other emerging and promising clean energy reactions, including hydrogen peroxide production, carbon dioxide reduction, and nitrogen reduction, among others. Although current paradigms for catalyst development have been helpful to date, a number of challenges need to be successfully addressed in order to achieve major breakthroughs. One important frontier, for example, is the development of both experimental and computational methods that can rapidly elucidate reaction mechanisms on broad classes of materials and in a wide range of operating conditions (e.g., pH, solvent, electrolyte). Such efforts would build on current frameworks for understanding catalysis to provide the deeper insights needed to fine-tune catalyst properties in an optimal manner. The long-term goal is to continue improving the activity and selectivity of these catalysts in order to realize the prospects of using renewable energy to provide the fuels and chemicals that we need for a sustainable energy future.

4,506 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mass production of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered light-duty vehicles requires a reduction in the amount of Pt presently used in fuel cells. This paper quantifies the activities and voltage loss modes for state-of-the-art MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), specifies performance goals needed for automotive application, and provides benchmark oxygen reduction activities for state-of-the-art platinum electrocatalysts using two different testing procedures to clearly establish the relative merit of candidate catalysts. A pathway to meet the automotive goals is charted, involving the further development of durable, high-activity Pt-alloy catalysts. The history, status in recent experiments, and prospects for Pt-alloy cathode catalysts are reviewed. The performance that would be needed for a cost-free non-Pt catalyst is defined quantitatively, and the behaviors of several published non-Pt catalyst systems (and logical extensions thereof), are compared to these requirements. Critical research topics are listed for the Pt-alloy catalysts, which appear to represent the most likely route to automotive fuel cells.

3,974 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202216
2021531
2020260
201929
20181
20161