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Journal ArticleDOI

Project Halo: Towards a Digital Aristotle

15 Dec 2004-Ai Magazine (AI Access Foundation)-Vol. 25, Iss: 4, pp 29-47

TL;DR: The motivation and longterm goals of Project Halo are presented, and the six-month first phase of the project -- the Halo Pilot -- its KR&R challenge, empirical evaluation, results, and failure analysis are described.

AbstractProject Halo is a multistaged effort, sponsored by Vulcan Inc, aimed at creating Digital Aristotle, an application that will encompass much of the world's scientific knowledge and be capable of applying sophisticated problem solving to answer novel questions. Vulcan envisions two primary roles for Digital Aristotle: as a tutor to instruct students in the sciences and as an interdisciplinary research assistant to help scientists in their work. As a first step towards this goal, we have just completed a six-month pilot phase designed to assess the state of the art in applied knowledge representation and reasoning (KR&/R). Vulcan selected three teams, each of which was to formally represent 70 pages from the advanced placement (AP) chemistry syllabus and deliver knowledge-based systems capable of answering questions on that syllabus. The evaluation quantified each system's coverage of the syllabus in terms of its ability to answer novel, previously unseen questions and to provide human- readable answer justifications. These justifications will play a critical role in building user trust in the question-answering capabilities of Digital Aristotle. Prior to the final evaluation, a "failure taxonomy' was collaboratively developed in an attempt to standardize failure analysis and to facilitate cross-platform comparisons. Despite differences in approach, all three systems did very well on the challenge, achieving performance comparable to the human median. The analysis also provided key insights into how the approaches might be scaled, while at the same time suggesting how the cost of producing such systems might be reduced. This outcome leaves us highly optimistic that the technical challenges facing this effort in the years to come can be identified and overcome. This article presents the motivation and longterm goals of Project Halo, describes in detail the six-month first phase of the project -- the Halo Pilot -- its KR&R challenge, empirical evaluation, results, and failure analysis. The pilot's outcome is used to define challenges for the next phase of the project and beyond.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This analysis shows that, while there is still some way to go before semantic annotation tools will be able to address fully all the knowledge management needs, research in the area is active and making good progress.
Abstract: While much of a company's knowledge can be found in text repositories, current content management systems have limited capabilities for structuring and interpreting documents. In the emerging Semantic Web, search, interpretation and aggregation can be addressed by ontology-based semantic mark-up. In this paper, we examine semantic annotation, identify a number of requirements, and review the current generation of semantic annotation systems. This analysis shows that, while there is still some way to go before semantic annotation tools will be able to address fully all the knowledge management needs, research in the area is active and making good progress.

597 citations


Patent
24 Nov 2004
Abstract: A method for processing natural language includes receiving an information input string. Referent tridbits corresponding to stimuli in the information input string are generated. Assert tridbits defining relationships between the referent tridbits are generated. A language processing system including a rules database and a meaning engine. The rules database is operable to store a plurality of syntax rules. The meaning engine is operable to receiving an information input string, generate referent tridbits corresponding to stimuli in the information input string based on the syntax rules, and generate assert tridbits defining relationships between the referent tridbits based on the syntax rules.

217 citations


Book
09 Jul 2008
TL;DR: The Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies provides an overview of current research and development activity in the area of learning designs in terms of teaching perspective and technological advances.
Abstract: Designing effective learning experiences is a significant challenge for educators. While there is a wide range of expert advice available for technology supported teaching and learning, translating theories and good practice principles into practice can be a daunting task. The Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies provides an overview of current research and development activity in the area of learning designs in terms of teaching perspective and technological advances. This essential reference brings together xxx studies that encompass the latest research of leaders in the field to provide an up-to-date and complete picture of the subject.

212 citations


Cites background from "Project Halo: Towards a Digital Ari..."

  • ...…KB of medical knowledge, the QED Project which aims to build a formal KB of all important, established mathematical knowledge, and the Halo project (Friedland et al., 2004) which has for very long term goal a system capable of teaching much of the world’s scientific knowledge by preparing and…...

    [...]

  • ...KBs, for example, the Open GALEN project which created a KB of medical knowledge, the QED Project which aims to build a formal KB of all important, established mathematical knowledge, and the Halo project (Friedland et al., 2004) which has for very long term goal a system capable of teaching much of the world’s scientific knowledge by preparing and answering test questions for students according to their knowledge and preferences....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
08 May 2007
TL;DR: This paper outlines a semantic weblogs scenario that illustrates the potential for combining Web 2.0 and Semantic Web technologies, while highlighting the unresolved issues that impede its realization.
Abstract: A common perception is that there are two competing visions for the future evolution of the Web: the Semantic Web and Web 2.0. A closer look, though, reveals that the core technologies and concerns of these two approaches are complementary and that each field can and must draw from the other's strengths. We believe that future web applications will retain the Web 2.0 focus on community and usability, while drawing on Semantic Web infrastructure to facilitate mashup-like information sharing. However, there are several open issues that must be addressed before such applications can become commonplace. In this paper, we outline a semantic weblogs scenario that illustrates the potential for combining Web 2.0 and Semantic Web technologies, while highlighting the unresolved issues that impede its realization. Nevertheless, we believe that the scenario can be realized in the short-term. We point to recent progress made in resolving each of the issues as well as future research directions for each of the communities.

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper outlines a semantic weblogs scenario that illustrates the potential for combining Web 2.0 and Semantic Web technologies, while highlighting the unresolved issues that impede its realization.
Abstract: A common perception is that there are two competing visions for the future evolution of the Web: the Semantic Web and Web 2.0. A closer look, though, reveals that the core technologies and concerns of these two approaches are complementary and that each field can and must draw from the other's strengths. We believe that future Web applications will retain the Web 2.0 focus on community and usability, while drawing on Semantic Web infrastructure to facilitate mashup-like information sharing. However, there are several open issues that must be addressed before such applications can become commonplace. In this paper, we outline a semantic weblogs scenario that illustrates the potential for combining Web 2.0 and Semantic Web technologies, while highlighting the unresolved issues that impede its realization. Nevertheless, we believe that the scenario can be realized in the short-term. We point to recent progress made in resolving each of the issues as well as future research directions for each of the communities.

177 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., F-logic), is proposed, that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of object-oriented and frame-based languages.
Abstract: We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., F-logic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of object-oriented and frame-based languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, encapsulation, and others. In a sense, F-logic stands in the same relationship to the object-oriented paradigm as classical predicate calculus stands to relational programming. F-logic has a model-theoretic semantics and a sound and complete resolution-based proof theory. A small number of fundamental concepts that come from object-oriented programming have direct representation in F-logic; other, secondary aspects of this paradigm are easily modeled as well. The paper also discusses semantic issues pertaining to programming with a deductive object-oriented language based on a subset of F-logic.

1,634 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presents a vision of the future in which knowledge-based system development and operation is facilitated by infrastructure and technology for knowledge sharing, and describes an initiative currently under way to develop these ideas.
Abstract: Building new knowledge-based systems today usually entails constructing new knowledge bases from scratch. It could instead be done by assembling reusable components. System developers would then only need to worry about creating the specialized knowledge and reasoners new to the specific task of their system. This new system would interoperate with existing systems, using them to perform some of its reasoning. In this way, declarative knowledge, problem- solving techniques, and reasoning services could all be shared among systems. This approach would facilitate building bigger and better systems cheaply. The infrastructure to support such sharing and reuse would lead to greater ubiquity of these systems, potentially transforming the knowledge industry. This article presents a vision of the future in which knowledge-based system development and operation is facilitated by infrastructure and technology for knowledge sharing. It describes an initiative currently under way to develop these ideas and suggests steps that must be taken in the future to try to realize this vision.

1,612 citations


"Project Halo: Towards a Digital Ari..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the area of knowledge-based systems, DARPA, AFOSR, NRI, and NSF jointly funded the knowledge sharing effort in 1991 (Neches et al. 1991)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examines MYCIN''s rujles from the perspective of a teacher trying to justify them and to convey a problem-solving approach, and discovers that individual rules play different roles, have different kinds of justifications, and are constructed using different rationales for the ordering and choice of premise clauses.
Abstract: Production rules are a popular representation for encoding heuristic knowledge in programs for scientific and medical problem solving. However, experience with one of these programs, MYCIN, indicates that the representation has serious limitations: people other than the original rule authors find it difficult to modify the rule set, and the rules are unsuitable for use in other settings, such as for application to teaching. These paroblems are rooted in fundamental limitations in MYCIN''s original rule representation: the view that expert knowledge can be encoded as a uniform, weakly-structured set of if/then associations is found to be wanting. To illustrate these problems, this paper examines MYCIN''s rujles from the perspective of a teacher trying to justify them and to convey a problem-solving approach. We discover that individual rules play different roles, have different kinds of justifications, and are constructed using different rationales for the ordering and choice of premise clauses. This design knowledge, consisting of structural and strategic concepts which lie outside the representation, is shown to be procedurally embedded in the rules. Moreover, because the data/hypothesis associations are themselves a proceduralized form of underlying disease models, they can only be supported by appealing to this deeper level of knowledge. Making explicit this structural, strategic and support knowledge enhances the ability to understand and modify the system.

704 citations


Book
01 Jan 1977
Abstract: 1. Introduction: Matter and Measurement. 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. 5. Thermochemistry. 6. Electronic Structure of Atoms. 7. Periodic Properties of the Elements. 8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding. 9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories. 10. Gases. 11. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids. 12. Modern Materials. 13. Properties of Solutions. 14. Chemical Kinetics. 15. Chemical Equilibrium. 16. Acid-Base Equilibria. 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibria. 18. Chemistry of the Environment. 19. Chemical Thermodynamics. 20. Electrochemistry. 21. Nuclear Chemistry. 22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals. 23. Metals and Metallurgy. 24. Chemistry of Coordination Compounds. 25. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry.

624 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evaluation of the constituent technologies centers on two challenge problems, in crisis management and battlespace reasoning, each demanding powerful problem solving with very large knowledge bases.
Abstract: Now completing its first year, the High-Performance Knowledge Bases Project promotes technology for developing very large, flexible, and reusable knowledge bases. The project is supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and includes more than 15 contractors in universities, research laboratories, and companies. The evaluation of the constituent technologies centers on two challenge problems, in crisis management and battlespace reasoning, each demanding powerful problem solving with very large knowledge bases. This article discusses the challenge problems, the constituent technologies, and their integration and evaluation.

177 citations