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Book ChapterDOI

Promising Functional Lipids for Therapeutic Applications

TL;DR: This chapter essentially highlights the multidomain progress in lipid research to counter major health challenges, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, impaired cognition, and neurological diseases.
Abstract: Until a decade ago, dietary lipids were the most misunderstood and ill-perceived dietary component in the human diet in terms of its relation with health. However, modern day research has provided empirical evidence to show the potential of certain classes of specialty lipids and their coproducts as fast-acting nutraceuticals. Lipid-based dietary components have been shown to provide health benefits in addition to basic nutrition and, hence, are designated as functional lipids. Functional lipids, which also include structured lipids (manipulated from natural sources by bioprocess technology), impede the manifestations of chronic diseases. These functional lipid molecules, often stated as nutraceuticals, have specific mechanisms of action against major lifestyle diseases and which have now been identified. Clinical evidences are also available, which corroborate these findings. The present focus of researchers in the field of functional food technology is to develop such formulations, including bioactive lipids to improve compromised health parameters at the genomic level. This chapter essentially highlights the multidomain progress in lipid research to counter major health challenges, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, impaired cognition, and neurological diseases. In particular, the therapeutic role of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, conjugated linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinoleinic acid, phytosterols, and marine phospholipids are being discussed.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview of different methods studied for the extraction of pomegranate seeds along with its astounding fatty acid profile, and demonstrate the multifaceted applications of PSO in the food industry, ranging from an animal feed to food packaging.
Abstract: Background Pomegranate is a prevalent fruit with a vast arena of food and pharmaceutical applications. The oil obtained from pomegranate seeds is known for its functional and beneficial health properties. Recently, there was an escalation in the studies concentrating on the applications of PSO in food and the related consequences. Scope and approach This review provides an overview of different methods studied for the extraction of PSO along with its astounding fatty acid profile. The approach also demonstrates the multifaceted applications of PSO in the food industry, ranging from an animal feed to food packaging. An abridged view of the stability, toxicity, and authentication of PSO is given along with an update on the potential market. Scrutiny on scientific literature identified many reviews on pomegranate, its derivatives, and fruit seed oils; however, the present study specifically focused on the recent progress in PSO works. Key findings and conclusions The PSO can be applied as a functional component in food and beverages, a fat replacer, and a property enhancer in food packaging. Moreover, enriching the lipid profile of meat and dairy products ensures the supply of conjugated fatty acids in the daily diet without changing the prevailing diet patterns. The assessment reveals an overview of the PSO applications in food from extraction to daily dietary intake and its immense potentialities, being the major source of punicic acid.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main approaches for the analysis of phytosterols include the use of mass spectrometry (MS) linked to a suitable separation technique, notably gas chromatography (GC).
Abstract: Phytosterols are a class of lipid molecules present in plants that are structurally similar to cholesterol and have been widely utilized as cholesterol-lowering agents. However, the susceptibility of phytosterols to oxidation has led to concerns regarding their safety and tolerability. Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in a variety of enriched and non-enriched foods can show pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory properties. Therefore, it is crucial to screen and analyze various phytosterol-containing products for the presence of POPs and ultimately design or modify phytosterols in such a way that prevents the generation of POPs and yet maintains their pharmacological activity. The main approaches for the analysis of POPs include the use of mass spectrometry (MS) linked to a suitable separation technique, notably gas chromatography (GC). However, liquid chromatography (LC)-MS has the potential to simplify the analysis due to the elimination of any derivatization step, usually required for GC-MS. To reduce the transformation of phytosterols to their oxidized counterparts, formulation strategies can theoretically be adopted, including the use of microemulsions, microcapsules, micelles, nanoparticles, and liposomes. In addition, co-formulation with antioxidants, such as tocopherols, may prove useful in substantially preventing POP generation. The main objectives of this review article are to evaluate the various analytical strategies that have been adopted for analyzing them. In addition, formulation approaches that can prevent the generation of these oxidation products are proposed.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of granulation and compression on the quality and stability of solidified spine date seed oil (SDSO) granules was investigated. But, the results showed that the fatty acid composition of SDSO granules did not change significantly during the microencapsulation, granulation, and compressing process.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to prepare the solidified microcapsules and identify the effect of granulation and compression on the quality and stability of solidified spine date seed oil (SDSO). The fatty acid profile and the oxidative stabilities of the products were applied as indicators. The microencapsulation of SDSO–loaded granules were prepared using an electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition method and subsequently compressed as tablets. The study of granulation suggested that the impeller and chopper speed significantly affect retention efficiency of SDSO in granules (P 0.05). The overall study also suggested that the fatty acid composition was not changed significantly during the microencapsulation, granulation, and compressing process (P > 0.05). Moreover, the peroxide value of SDSO in the tablets (9.79 ± 0.62 mmol/kg) was lower than SDSO (47.57 ± 5.25 mmol/kg) and the microcapsules (23.16 ± 3.06 mmol/kg) (P

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Abstract: Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent immunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil— eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—are more biologically potent than -linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB4 produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebocontrolled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Key teaching points:  In Western diets, omega-6 fatty acids are the predominant polyunsaturated fats. The omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are metabolically distinct and have opposing physiologic functions.  Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is released to compete with arachidonic acid (AA) for enzymatic metabolism inducing the production of less inflammatory and chemotactic derivatives.  Animal and human studies support the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFA suppress cell mediated immune responses.  In experimental animals and humans, serum PUFA levels predict the response of proinflammatory cytokines to psychologic stress. Imbalance in the omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio in major depression may be related to the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids in that illness.  The increased omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets most likely contributes to an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and inflammatory disorders.  Patients with autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, usually respond to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation by decreasing the elevated levels of cytokines.

1,798 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2012-Diabetes
TL;DR: It is shown here that SCFAs trigger secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 from mixed colonic cultures in vitro and in vivo and a parallel impairment of glucose tolerance is observed in mice lacking ffar2 or ffar3.
Abstract: Interest in how the gut microbiome can influence the metabolic state of the host has recently heightened. One postulated link is bacterial fermentation of “indigestible” prebiotics to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which in turn modulate the release of gut hormones controlling insulin release and appetite. We show here that SCFAs trigger secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 from mixed colonic cultures in vitro. Quantitative PCR revealed enriched expression of the SCFA receptors ffar2 (grp43) and ffar3 (gpr41) in GLP-1–secreting L cells, and consistent with the reported coupling of GPR43 to Gq signaling pathways, SCFAs raised cytosolic Ca2+ in L cells in primary culture. Mice lacking ffar2 or ffar3 exhibited reduced SCFA-triggered GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo and a parallel impairment of glucose tolerance. These results highlight SCFAs and their receptors as potential targets for the treatment of diabetes.

1,586 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that microbiota have a strong effect on energy homeostasis in the colon compared to other tissues and this tissue specificity is due to colonocytes utilizing bacterially produced butyrate as their primary energy source.

1,328 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pharmacology of GPR43 matches indeed the effects of SCFAs on neutrophils, in terms of intracellular Ca2+ release and chemotaxis, and might constitute a target allowing us to modulate immune responses in these pathological situations.

1,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high rate of CO2 production from butyrate should be a worthwhile means of examining the functional activity of the colonic mucosa clinically and in vivo.

1,061 citations