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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00325481.2021.1891788

Prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 related venous thromboembolism.

04 Mar 2021-Postgraduate Medicine (Postgrad Med)-Vol. 133, pp 27-35
Abstract: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with high rates of thrombo-embolic complications, mostly venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is thought to be a combination of conventional VTE and in situ immunothrombosis in the pulmonary vascular tree. The incidence of thrombotic complications is dependent on setting (intensive care unit (ICU) versus general ward) and the threshold for performing diagnostic tests (screening versus diagnostic algorithms triggered by symptoms). Since these thrombotic complications are associated with in-hospital mortality, all current guidelines and consensus papers propose pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in all hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Several trials are ongoing to study the optimal intensity of anticoagulation for this purpose. As for the management of thrombotic complications, treatment regimens from non-COVID-19 guidelines can be adapted, with choice of anticoagulant drug class dependent on the situation. Parenteral anticoagulation is preferred for patients on ICUs or with impending clinical deterioration, while oral treatment can be started in stable patients. This review describes current knowledge on incidence and pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated VTE and provides an overview of guideline recommendations on thromboprophylaxis and treatment of established VTE in COVID-19 patients.

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Topics: Anticoagulant drug (53%), Intensive care unit (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22137126
Giuliano Ramadori1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Hypercoagulation is one of the major risk factors for ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, and death in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, hypoalbuminemia is one risk factor in such patients, independent of age and comorbidities. Especially in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-infection, albumin infusion may be essential to improve hemodynamics and to reduce the plasma level of the main marker of thromboembolism, namely, the D-dimer plasma level, as suggested by a recent report. Albumin is responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure in the vessels. This is necessary to keep enough water within the systemic circulatory system and for the maintenance of sufficient blood pressure, as well as for sufficient blood supply for vital organs like the brain, lungs, heart, and kidney. The liver reacts to a decrease in oncotic pressure with an increase in albumin synthesis. This is normally possible through the use of amino acids from the proteins introduced with the nutrients reaching the portal blood. If these are not sufficiently provided with the diet, amino acids are delivered to the liver from muscular proteins by systemic circulation. The liver is also the source of coagulation proteins, such as fibrinogen, fibronectin, and most of the v WF VIII, which are physiological components of the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall. While albumin is the main negative acute-phase protein, fibrinogen, fibronectin, and v WF VIII are positive acute-phase proteins. Acute illnesses cause the activation of defense mechanisms (acute-phase reaction) that may lead to an increase of fibrinolysis and an increase of plasma level of fibrinogen breakdown products, mainly fibrin and D-dimer. The measurement of the plasma level of the D-dimer has been used as a marker for venous thromboembolism, where a fourfold increase of the D-dimer plasma level was used as a negative prognostic marker in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. Increased fibrinolysis can take place in ischemic peripheral sites, where the mentioned coagulation proteins can become part of the provisional clot (e.g., in the lungs). Although critically ill SARS-CoV-2-infected patients are considered septic shock patients, albumin infusions have not been considered for hemodynamic resuscitation and as anticoagulants. The role of coagulation factors as provisional components of the extracellular matrix in case of generalized peripheral ischemia due to hypoalbuminemia and hypovolemia is discussed in this review.

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Topics: Hypoalbuminemia (59%), Oncotic pressure (58%), Albumin (56%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BCR-2021-244049
22 Jun 2021-Case Reports
Abstract: A 68-year-old man was referred to the general surgeons on account of his abdominal pain of unknown cause. He had contracted COVID-19, 9 days prior. CT chest abdomen and pelvis revealed an extensive thrombus extending from the portal vein to the superior mesenteric vein. Further investigation ruled out haematological causes, and COVID-19 was determined to be the cause. He was treated with an extended course of therapeutic dose low molecular weight heparin under the guidance of the haematology team. He was discharged once he was clinically stable and pain-free, with a plan to be followed up by both the surgeons and haematologists. This case highlights the different ways in which COVID-19 presents, and the need for clearer guidance on the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism in COVID-19.

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Topics: Superior mesenteric vein (67%), Mesenteric Vein (67%), Portal vein thrombosis (63%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11899-021-00647-Z
Tiziano Barbui, Valerio De Stefano1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Purpose of review Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of respiratory failure, thromboembolism, bleeding, and death. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, calling for special care during COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical features of MPN patients with COVID-19, suggesting guidance for treatment. Recent findings One study by the European LeukemiaNet collected 175 MPN patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, from February to May 2020. Patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were at higher risk of mortality (48%) in comparison with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (25%) and polycythemia vera (19%); the risk of death was higher in those patients who abruptly discontinued ruxolitinib. In patients followed at home, in regular wards, or in ICU, the thrombosis rate was 1.0%, 2.8%, and 18.4%, respectively. Independent risk factors for thrombosis were ET phenotype, transfer to ICU, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; major bleeding occurred in 4.3% of patients, particularly those with PMF. MPN patients with non-severe COVID-19 treated at home should continue their primary or secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin or oral anticoagulants. In the case of hospitalization, patients assuming aspirin should add low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at standard doses. In contrast, LMWH at intermediate/therapeutic doses should replace oral anticoagulants prescribed for atrial fibrillation or previous venous thromboembolism. Intermediate/high doses of LMWH can also be considered in ICU patients with ET, particularly in the case of a rapid decline in the number of platelets and progressive respiratory failure.

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Topics: Essential thrombocythemia (53%), Low molecular weight heparin (53%), Ruxolitinib (52%) ... read more

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/01.NPR.0000742900.78322.F9
Joanne L. Thanavaro1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Venous thromboembolism is a significant clinical entity that includes two associated medical disorders: deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The goal of this article is to describe the optimal approach to evaluating venous thromboembolism including pretest probability clinical decision rules and appropriate testing to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

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Topics: Deep vein (56%), Pulmonary embolism (52%), Thrombosis (52%)

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127 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2002032
Wei-jie Guan1, Zhengyi Ni1, Yu Hu1, Wenhua Liang1  +33 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of...

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16,855 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... read more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.1585
Dawei Wang1, Bo Hu1, Chang Hu1, Fangfang Zhu1  +10 moreInstitutions (1)
17 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%.

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Topics: Interquartile range (51%)

13,270 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2007764
John H. Beigel1, Kay M. Tomashek1, Lori E. Dodd1, Aneesh K. Mehta1  +36 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), none have yet been shown to be efficacious. Methods We conducte...

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3,423 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JTH.14768
Ning Tang1, Dengju Li1, Xiong Wang1, Ziyong Sun1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background: In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. Objectives: To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. Methods: Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non-survivors revealed significantly higher D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non-survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. Conclusions: The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D-dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.

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Topics: D-dimer (59%), Partial thromboplastin time (56%), Prothrombin time (56%) ... read more

3,232 Citations