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Dissertation

Protección penal del medio ambiente y disuasión .Una mirada desde el análisis económico del derecho

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluate the efecto disuasorio de la ley penal en el sector medio-ambiental, based on empirico and distintos analisisis estadisticos.
Abstract: Desde que el Derecho penal moderno introdujo en su repertorio de bienes juridicos protegidos al medio ambiente, mucho se ha hablado sobre el tema. Esta investigacion se centra en los siguientes aspectos: el primero de ellos radica en conceptualizar al medioambiente como bien juridico penalmente protegido. Luego, se diferencia la proteccion administrativa y la proteccion penal del medioambiente, evaluando los aspectos mas destacados de ambas ramas del ordenamiento juridico. Posteriormente, se desarrollan los conceptos principales del analisis economico del derecho como metodo y/o herramienta para estudiar los efectos de la sancion en el comportamiento humano. Aplicando ese metodo se procede a evaluar el efecto disuasorio de la ley penal en el sector medioambiental. Para llevar adelante este trabajo se han realizado un estudio empirico y distintos analisis estadisticos para, intentar, responder a la pregunta que motivo la presente tesis: ?disuade el Derecho penal del medio ambiente? Si bien no se pretende que las conclusiones alcanzadas sean definitivas, sin embargo, si pueden considerarse un punto de partida para futuros estudios sobre la cuestion en Espana

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Book
28 Jan 2013

85 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Apr 2009

15 citations

01 May 2009
TL;DR: In el ambito de la dogmatica, la solucion pasa por la necesidad de reformular nociones estructurales de la teoria del delito, como las de accion, imputabilidad, and culpabilidad as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: La discusion sobre la posibilidad de que las personas juridicas puedan responder penalmente es susceptible de ser planteada en el plano politico-criminal o en el puramente dogmatico. Desde la primera perspectiva, la tendencia mayoritaria es la de aceptar esa responsabilidad. En el ambito de la dogmatica, la solucion pasa por la necesidad de reformular nociones estructurales de la teoria del delito, como las de accion, imputabilidad y culpabilidad. Desde el punto de vista de una teoria de la imputacion objetiva de corte normativo, se propone un nuevo concepto de accion y otro de culpabilidad, que puedan ser predicados tanto de las llamadas personas individuales como de las denominadas personas juridicas.

9 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the results of a rigorous study of the empirical linkages between financial and social performance, finding that corporate social performance (CSP) is positively associated with prior financial performance, supporting the theory that slack resource availability and CSP are positively related.
Abstract: Strategic managers are consistently faced with the decision of how to allocate scarce corporate resources in an environment that is placing more and more pressures on them. Recent scholarship in strategic management suggests that many of these pressures come directly from sources associated with social issues in management, rather than traditional arenas of strategic management. Using a greatly improved source of data on corporate social performance, this paper reports the results of a rigorous study of the empirical linkages between financial and social performance. Corporate social performance (CSP) is found to be positively associated with prior financial performance, supporting the theory that slack resource availability and CSP are positively related. CSP is also found to be positively associated with future financial performance, supporting the theory that good management and CSP are positively related.? 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

5,922 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the tendency of people to be unrealistically optimistic about future life events and found that degree of desirability, perceived probability, personal experience, perceived controllability, and stereotype saliency would influence the amount of optimistic bias evoked by different events.
Abstract: Two studies investigated the tendency of people to be unrealistically optimistic about future life events. In Study 1, 258 college students estimated how much their own chances of experiencing 42 events differed from the chances of their classmates. Overall, they rated their own chances to be above average for positive events and below average for negative events, ps<.001. Cognitive and motivational considerations led to predictions that degree of desirability, perceived probability, personal experience, perceived controllability, and stereotype salience would influence the amount of optimistic bias evoked by different events. All predictions were supported, although the pattern of effects differed for positive and negative events. Study 2 tested the idea that people are unrealistically optimistic because they focus on factors that improve their own chances of achieving desirable outcomes and fail to realize that others may have just as many factors in their favor. Students listed the factors that they thought influenced their own chances of experiencing eight future events. When such lists were read by a second group of students, the amount of unrealistic optimism shown by this second group for the same eight events decreased significantly, although it was not eliminated.

4,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The conditions under which transactors can use the market (repeat-purchase) mechanism of contract enforcement are examined in this article, where increased price is shown to be a means of assuring contractual performance.
Abstract: The conditions under which transactors can use the market (repeat-purchase) mechanism of contract enforcement are examined. Increased price is shown to be a means of assuring contractual performance. A necessary and sufficient condition for performance is the existence of price sufficiently above salvageable production costs so that the nonperforming firm loses a discounted steam of rents on future sales which is greater than the wealth increase from nonperformance. This will generally imply a market price greater than the perfectly competitive price and rationalize investments in firm-specific assets. Advertising investments thereby become a positive indicator of likely performance.

3,681 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an equilibrium price-quality schedule for markets in which buyers cannot observe product quality prior to purchase is derived, and the effects of improved consumer information and of a minimum quality standard on the equilibrium price quality schedule are studied.
Abstract: This paper derives an equilibrium price-quality schedule for markets in which buyers cannot observe product quality prior to purchase. In such markets there is an incentive for sellers to reduce quality and take short-run gains before buyers catch on. In order to forestall such quality cutting, the price-quality schedule involves high quality items selling at a premium above their cost. This premium also serves the function of compensating sellers for their investment in reputation. The effects of improved consumer information and of a minimum quality standard on the equilibrium price-quality schedule are studied. In general, optimal quality standards exclude from the market items some consumers would like to buy.

2,412 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the effectiveness of policy options for deterring crime and find that some policies that are effective in preventing crime in the short term may be ineffective or even criminogenic in the long run because they may erode the foundation of the deterrent effect-fear of stigmatization.
Abstract: Evidence for a substantial deterrent effect is much firmer than it was two decades ago. However, large gaps in knowledge on the links between policy actions and behavior make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of policy options for deterring crime. There are four major impediments. First, analyses must estimate not only short-term consequences but also calibrate long-term effects. Some policies that are effective in preventing crime in the short term may be ineffective or even criminogenic in the long run because they may erode the foundation of the deterrent effect-fear of stigmatization. Second, knowledge about the relationship of sanction risk perceptions to policy is virtually nonexistent; such knowledge would be invaluable in designing effective crime-deterrent policies. Third, estimates of deterrent effects based on data from multiple governmental units measure a policy's average effectiveness across unit. It is important to understand better the sources of variation in response across place a...

893 citations