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Journal ArticleDOI

Protecting an Autonomous Delivery Agent Against a Vision-Guided Adversary: Algorithms and Experimental Results

01 Sep 2020-IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 16, Iss: 9, pp 5667-5679
TL;DR: The challenges involved in autonomous protection of a delivery agent, via a land-based rescue agent, before interception of the delivery agent by the adversary occurs are investigated.
Abstract: Safety considerations call for deployment of autonomous ground vehicles in defense and high risk zones for transport of goods from one point to another. Such vehicles face the threat of an intelligent autonomous adversary that may disrupt the transfer of material. This article investigates the challenges involved in autonomous protection of a delivery agent, via a land-based rescue agent, before interception of the delivery agent by the adversary occurs. In particular, we study how effectively an adversary equipped with a vision sensor can be handled by an autonomous rescue agent operating without vision support and relying only on wireless communication with the delivery agent. Taking capabilities and weights of the three vehicles into account, the delivery agent is assumed to be the slowest while the adversary operates at the highest speed among the three vehicles. A geometric framework based on Apollonius circles is proposed to analyze the interaction between the delivery and rescue agents. The adversary's speed and its moves (based on the direction of the delivery agent) are taken into account, along with the Apollonius circles for the rescue-delivery agent pair, to determine the possibility of capture. Regions in the plane where the delivery and rescue agents can meet, prior to a capture by the adversary, are obtained to compute safe regions for the delivery agent. Algorithms adopted by the delivery agent, rescue agent, and the adversary are described. We, then, explore the challenges in rescue of multiple delivery agents from a vision-guided adversary by introducing additional rescue agents. In particular, we study protection of $k$ delivery agents (from an adversary) via $k$ rescue agents. Algorithms to compute 1) multiple meeting points, one each for a delivery agent-rescue agent pair and 2) the strategy of the adversary to capture any one of the $k$ delivery agents are presented. Experiments with multiple agents show that the delivery and rescue agents can execute their strategies using simply low-end microcontrollers without external memory.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors provide a general discussion of different types of CPS and their characteristics, giving an overview of different game-theoretic approaches, explaining why game theory is appropriate for modeling different types, and finally, studying how game theory has been used in different CPS types.
Abstract: With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), artificial intelligence, and communication technologies, cyber-physical systems (CPS) have revolutionized the engineering paradigm with profound applications in many aspects of society including homes, energy, agriculture, health-care, transportation, business, and manufacturing. A CPS uses suitable computational techniques such as game theory to enable different entities to interact with one another for taking necessary actions to obtain selected objectives. Recent literature on CPS has extensively used game theory to approach a variety of technical challenges. In order to make these contributions more accessible to a broader audience, there is a need for studies that can provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of different types of CPS and their attributes, then clearly outline why game theory is relevant for modeling different aspects of CPS, and also discuss how game theory has been used in relevant literature to date. This paper bridges this gap by 1) providing a general discussion of different types of CPS and their characteristics; 2) giving an overview of different types of game-theoretic approaches; 3) explaining why game theory is appropriate for modeling different types of CPS; and 4) finally, studying how game theory has been used in different CPS types to address their challenges. Further, we also identify some key research challenges for future investigation where game theory could be applied as a potential solution.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2022
TL;DR: In this article , a variation of the active target-attacker-defender (ATAD) differential game involving multiple targets, an attacker, and a defender is studied, where the defender can switch roles from rescuer to interceptor and vice versa.
Abstract: In this article, we study a variation of the active target-attacker-defender (ATAD) differential game involving multiple targets, an attacker, and a defender. Our model allows for 1) a capability of the defender to switch roles from rescuer (rendezvous with all the targets) to interceptor (intercepts the attacker) and vice versa and 2) the attacker to continuously pursue the closest target (which can change during the course of the game). We assume that the mode of the defender (rescue or interception) defines the mode of the game itself. Using the framework of Games of a Degree, we first analyze the game within each mode. More specifically, the objectives of the players are taken as a combination of weighted Euclidean distances and penalties on their control efforts. We model the interaction of the players within each mode as a linear quadratic differential game (LQDG) and obtain the open-loop Nash equilibrium strategies. We then use the receding horizon approach to enable switching between the modes to obtain switching strategies for the players. By partitioning the matrices associated with the Riccati differential equations we obtain geometric characterization of the trajectories of the players. Furthermore, under mild restrictions on the problem parameters and for a particular choice of the defender’s switching function we show that interception mode is invariant. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations. Experimental results involving multiple autonomous differential drive mobile robots are presented.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors provide a general discussion of different types of CPS and their characteristics, giving an overview of different game-theoretic approaches, explaining why game theory is appropriate for modeling different aspects of CPS, and studying how game theory has been used in different CPS types to address their challenges.
Abstract: With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), artificial intelligence, and communication technologies, cyber-physical systems (CPS) have revolutionized the engineering paradigm with profound applications in many aspects of society including homes, energy, agriculture, health-care, transportation, business, and manufacturing. A CPS uses suitable computational techniques such as game theory to enable different entities to interact with one another for taking necessary actions to obtain selected objectives. Recent literature on CPS has extensively used game theory to approach a variety of technical challenges. In order to make these contributions more accessible to a broader audience, there is a need for studies that can provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of different types of CPS and their attributes, then clearly outline why game theory is relevant for modeling different aspects of CPS, and also discuss how game theory has been used in relevant literature to date. This paper bridges this gap by 1) providing a general discussion of different types of CPS and their characteristics; 2) giving an overview of different types of game-theoretic approaches; 3) explaining why game theory is appropriate for modeling different types of CPS; and 4) finally, studying how game theory has been used in different CPS types to address their challenges. Further, we also identify some key research challenges for future investigation where game theory could be applied as a potential solution.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An autonomous robot (AR) cart to execute the last mile delivery task using navigation and intelligent avoidance algorithms to plan the path of the automatic robot.
Abstract: This paper introduces an autonomous robot (AR) cart to execute the last mile delivery task. We use navigation and intelligent avoidance algorithms to plan the path of the automatic robot. When AR encounters a new unrecognizable terrain, it will give control to the customer who can control the AR on its mobile app and navigate to the specified destination. We have initially designed an autonomous delivery robot with the cost of 2774 dollars.

1 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Drone transportation is very common now [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a multi-mechanism fusion strategy for the pursuer group is addressed to capture a faster evader cooperatively, and the results show that the proposed method can achieve good performance with an appropriate combination of the speed ratio and formation spacing when considering the success ratio and collision ratio simultaneously.
Abstract: Distributed group cooperation is a challenging problem for a swarm of agents with local information. In this paper, a multi-mechanism fusion strategy for the pursuer group is addressed to capture a faster evader cooperatively. First, the reach-avoid game is established as an adversarial environment. And the practical factors such as perception, communication and maneuverability are considered. Then, the multi-mechanism fusion strategy, which contains six sub-mechanisms that are divided into the core mechanism and auxiliary mechanism, is proposed as a mechanism library to jointly guide the pursuer behaviors. The behavior tendency function of each sub-mechanism is designed as the objective function and the particle swarm algorithm is applied for optimal decision. Meantime, an evasion strategy is also designed to examine the strategy efficiency of the pursuer group. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the effect of the proposed method. The discussion and comparison are raised based on the speed ratio and formation spacing. The results show that the proposed method can achieve good performance with an appropriate combination of the speed ratio and formation spacing when considering the success ratio and collision ratio simultaneously.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Mar 2007
TL;DR: A theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees is provided.
Abstract: This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in small-world networks, Markov processes and gossip-based algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with lattice-type nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of small-world effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations

9,715 citations


"Protecting an Autonomous Delivery A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Tools from matrix theory and algebraic graph theory have been combined to analyze cooperation among multiagent systems in [10]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Numerical evidence is presented that this model results in a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport through spontaneous symmetry breaking of the rotational symmetry.
Abstract: A simple model with a novel type of dynamics is introduced in order to investigate the emergence of self-ordered motion in systems of particles with biologically motivated interaction. In our model particles are driven with a constant absolute velocity and at each time step assume the average direction of motion of the particles in their neighborhood with some random perturbation $(\ensuremath{\eta})$ added. We present numerical evidence that this model results in a kinetic phase transition from no transport (zero average velocity, $|{\mathbf{v}}_{a}|\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}0$) to finite net transport through spontaneous symmetry breaking of the rotational symmetry. The transition is continuous, since $|{\mathbf{v}}_{a}|$ is found to scale as $({\ensuremath{\eta}}_{c}\ensuremath{-}\ensuremath{\eta}{)}^{\ensuremath{\beta}}$ with $\ensuremath{\beta}\ensuremath{\simeq}0.45$.

6,514 citations


"Protecting an Autonomous Delivery A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Studies on collective motion of autonomous robots have been largely inspired by the model in [7] for motion in systems of particles....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed some main results and progress in distributed multi-agent coordination, focusing on papers published in major control systems and robotics journals since 2006 and proposed several promising research directions along with some open problems that are deemed important for further investigations.
Abstract: This paper reviews some main results and progress in distributed multi-agent coordination, focusing on papers published in major control systems and robotics journals since 2006. Distributed coordination of multiple vehicles, including unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and unmanned underwater vehicles, has been a very active research subject studied extensively by the systems and control community. The recent results in this area are categorized into several directions, such as consensus, formation control, optimization, and estimation. After the review, a short discussion section is included to summarize the existing research and to propose several promising research directions along with some open problems that are deemed important for further investigations.

1,814 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed some main results and progress in distributed multi-agent coordination, focusing on papers published in major control systems and robotics journals since 2006, and proposed several promising research directions along with some open problems that are deemed important for further investigations.
Abstract: This article reviews some main results and progress in distributed multi-agent coordination, focusing on papers published in major control systems and robotics journals since 2006. Distributed coordination of multiple vehicles, including unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles and unmanned underwater vehicles, has been a very active research subject studied extensively by the systems and control community. The recent results in this area are categorized into several directions, such as consensus, formation control, optimization, task assignment, and estimation. After the review, a short discussion section is included to summarize the existing research and to propose several promising research directions along with some open problems that are deemed important for further investigations.

1,655 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A taxonomy of search problems is provided that highlights the differences resulting from varying assumptions on the searchers, targets, and the environment and highlights current open problems in the area and explores avenues for future work.
Abstract: This paper surveys recent results in pursuit-evasion and autonomous search relevant to applications in mobile robotics. We provide a taxonomy of search problems that highlights the differences resulting from varying assumptions on the searchers, targets, and the environment. We then list a number of fundamental results in the areas of pursuit-evasion and probabilistic search, and we discuss field implementations on mobile robotic systems. In addition, we highlight current open problems in the area and explore avenues for future work.

505 citations


"Protecting an Autonomous Delivery A..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[18] reviewed pursuit-evasion in the context of mobile robotics, while...

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